All living tissues require essential nutrients such as amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and water. The skeleton requires nutrients for development, maintaining bone mass and density. If the skeletal nutritional requirements are not met, the consequences can be quite severe. In recent years, there has been growing interest in promotion of bone health and inhibition of vascular calcification by vitamin K2. This vitamin regulates bone remodeling, an important process necessary to maintain adult bone. Bone remodeling involves removal of old or damaged bone by osteoclasts and its replacement by new bone formed by osteoblasts. The remodeling process is tightly regulated, when the balance between bone resorption and bone formation shifts to a net bone loss results in the development of osteoporosis in both men and women. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the effects of vitamin K2 on bone cells and its role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Keywords: bone remodeling; osteocalcin; osteoporosis; vitamin K2.
Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.