Normative data for cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet

Muscle Nerve. 2017 Sep;56(3):399-407. doi: 10.1002/mus.25512. Epub 2017 Apr 1.


Introduction: No data are available for normative values of cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet. We developed clinically applicable reference values in relation to the nerve distributions of the feet.

Methods: We determined foot sensation in 196 healthy individuals. Cutaneous threshold (1-point static discrimination, S1PD) was tested with monofilaments (0.008 to 300 gram) and spatial discrimination (2-point static [S2PD] and moving [M2PD] discrimination) on five locations per foot.

Results: There was a significant age-dependent increase in S1PD, S2PD, and M2PD values (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between both feet. S1PD values differed up to 0.8 g between genders. There were no significant differences between genders for S2PD and M2PD measurements. M2PD values were generally lower than S2PD values.

Conclusions: This study provides age-related normative values for foot sensation to help clinicians assess sensory deficits in relation to aging and identify patients with underlying nerve problems. Muscle Nerve 56: 399-407, 2017.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging / physiology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Discrimination, Psychological / physiology*
  • Female
  • Foot / innervation
  • Foot / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sensory Thresholds / physiology*
  • Touch / physiology*
  • Vibration
  • Young Adult