Background: Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted protozoan diseases in the worldwide. Metronidazole is the choice drug for trichomoniasis treatment, however, metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis) has been reported. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) is widely used ingredient in the traditional medicine.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of the ginger ethanol extract on the growth of T.vaginalis trophozoites in vitro.
Materials and methods: In this experimental study, 970 women who were attend in Kashan health centers were examined for T. vaginalis. Of them, 23 samples were infected with T.vaginalis. Three T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium. The effect of ginger ethanol extracts and its toxicity in different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) on mouse macrophages were measured in triplicate exam by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of ginger on apoptosis induction was determined by Flow cytometry.
Results: The IC50 of ginger and metronidazole were 93.8 and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. 12, 24 and 48 hr after adding different concentrations of extract on mouse macrophages, fatality rates in maximum dose (800 µg/ml) were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.31 respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the apoptosis rate following treatment with different concentrations of the extract after 48 hr were 17, 28.5, 42.1, 58.8, 76.3 and 100% respectively, while in the control group was 2.9%.
Conclusion: Ginger ethanol extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. It is recommended that due to the known teratogenic effect of metronidazole, ginger can be considered as an alternative drug for metronidazole.
Keywords: 3-(4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2; 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; Apoptosis; Extract; Ginger; IC50; In vitro; Trichomonas vaginalis; Zingiber officinale.