Background: Previous research has shown that diet is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation among adults. However, no study has yet been conducted to explore the association between inflammatory potential of diet and low-grade systemic inflammation among adolescents whose dietary behavior may be different from adults.
Methods and results: We examine the predictive ability of 24-h recall-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores on inflammation among 532 European adolescents in the HELENA cross-sectional study. The DII is a literature-derived dietary index developed to predict inflammation. The DII was calculated per 1000 calories and was tested against C-reactive protein, ILs-1,2,4,10, TNF-α, ICAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), and IFN-γ. All inflammatory markers had nonnormal distributions and therefore were log transformed. Analyses were performed using multivariable linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, city, BMI, smoking, and physical activity. Pro-inflammatory diet (higher DII scores) was associated with increased levels of various inflammatory markers: TNF-α, IL-1, 2, IFN-γ, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (bDIIt3vs1 = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.25; 0.13, 95% CI 0.001, 0.25; 0.40, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.77; 0.53, 95% CI: 0.05, 1.01; 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13, respectively).
Conclusion: These results reinforce the fact that diet, as a whole, plays an important role in modifying inflammation in adolescents.
Keywords: Adolescents; Cross-sectional; Diet; HELENA; Inflammation.
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.