Emerging Trends of Bloodstream Infections: A Six-Year Study at a Paediatric Tertiary Care Hospital in Kabul

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2016 Nov;26(11):887-891.


Objective: To determine the frequency of pathogens causing bloodstream infections and evaluate their trends and antibiogram patterns among in-patients in a paediatric tertiary care centre.

Study design: Descriptive study.

Place and duration of study: French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC), Kabul, Afghanistan in two phases, from January 2010 to December 2015.

Methodology: Results of blood cultures from suspected cases of sepsis admitted in the FMIC, from January 2010 to December 2012 (Period-1), and from January 2013 to December 2015 (Period-2) were completed. Standard microbiological methods were followed for blood culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing.

Results: Out of total 1,040 cases of culture proven sepsis, 528 (50.77%) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), 474 (45.58%) Gram-positive cocci (GPC), and 38 (3.65%) Candida species were isolated during the entire study period. Out of 528 GNB isolates, 373 (70.64%) belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and 155 (29.36%) were non-fermenters. Among Enterobacteriaceae, 168 (31.82%) were Klebsiella species (K. pneumoniae=124, K. oxytoca=44), 70 (13.26%) were Enterobacter species (E. cloacae=52, E. aerogenes=18), 65 (12.31%) were E. coli, 37 (7.01%) were Serratia marcescens and 31 (5.87%) were others. Out of 155 non-fermenters, 88 (16.67%) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 39 (7.39%) were Burkholderia cepacia and 18 (3.41%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. There was a drop in the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae from 85% in Period-1 to 58.68% in Period-2. There was an increase in the frequency of nonfermenters from 15% to 41.32%, particularly 18 new cases of sepsis caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia during Period-2. Among GPC, there was an overall rise of 16.14% in the prevalence of Staphylococcus epidermidis during Period-2 and a drop of 9.64% in the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus during Period-2. The majority of Gram-negative isolates were multidrug-resistant to commonly used antibiotics. However, most of the isolates were sensitive to amikacin and imipenem (except S. maltophilia). The frequency of those producing ESBL reduced by 11.22% during the Period-2. Among Gram-positive cocci, the pattern of antibiogram did not show a significant change during both periods, and majority remained resistant to commonly used antibiotics. All Staphylococci were sensitive to vancomycin but resistant to penicillin. There was a substantial decline of 18.87% in the frequency of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRSA/MRSE) during Period-2.

Conclusion: Staphylococci and Klebsiellae remain the most important bacteria responsible for bloodstream infections in a tertiary healthcare facility in Kabul. Yet, there has been an increase in the prevalence of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia cepacia. Moreover, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia emerged as a new hospital acquired pathogen. This study could possibly help in suggesting choices eluding the misuse of appropriate antibiotics.

MeSH terms

  • Afghanistan / epidemiology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy
  • Cross Infection / epidemiology
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / drug therapy
  • Female
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Klebsiella / drug effects*
  • Klebsiella / isolation & purification
  • Male
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Sepsis / drug therapy*
  • Sepsis / epidemiology
  • Sepsis / microbiology
  • Staphylococcal Infections / drug therapy
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents