Anti-Fatigue Effect by Peptide Fraction from Protein Hydrolysate of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) Swim Bladder through Inhibiting the Oxidative Reactions including DNA Damage

Mar Drugs. 2016 Dec 13;14(12):221. doi: 10.3390/md14120221.


The swim bladder of the croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) was believed to have good curative effects in various diseases, including amnesia, insomnia, dizziness, anepithymia, and weakness after giving birth, in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no research focusing on the antioxidant and anti-fatigue peptides from croceine croaker swim bladders at present. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivities of peptide fractions from the protein hydrolysate of croceine croaker related to antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. In the study, swim bladder peptide fraction (SBP-III-3) was isolated from the protein hydrolysate of the croceine croaker, and its antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities were measured using in vitro and in vivo methods. The results indicated that SBP-III-3 exhibited good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radicals (HO•) (EC50 (the concentration where a sample caused a 50% decrease of the initial concentration of HO•) = 0.867 mg/mL), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) (EC50 = 0.895 mg/mL), superoxide anion radical ( O 2 - •) (EC50 = 0.871 mg/mL), and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS⁺•) (EC50 = 0.346 mg/mL). SBP-III-3 also showed protective effects on DNA damage in a concentration-effect manner and prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by 57.9%-107.5% greater than that of the control. SBP-III-3 could increase the levels of muscle glucose (9.4%-115.2% increase) and liver glycogen (35.7%-157.3%), and decrease the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic acid (LA), and malondialdehyde (MDA) by 16.4%-22.4%, 13.9%-20.1%, and 28.0%-53.6%, respectively. SBP-III-3 also enhanced the activity of lactic dehydrogenase to scavenge excessive LA for slowing the development of fatigue. In addition, SBP-III-3 increased the activities superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase to reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage in mice. In conclusion, SBP-III-3 possessed good anti-fatigue capacities on mice by inhibiting the oxidative reactions and provided an important basis for developing the swim bladder peptide functional food.

Keywords: anti-fatigue activity; antioxidant activity; croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea); peptide; swim bladder.

MeSH terms

  • Air Sacs / chemistry*
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Biphenyl Compounds / chemistry
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • DNA Damage / drug effects*
  • Fatigue / drug therapy*
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Hydroxyl Radical / metabolism
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Peptides / chemistry
  • Peptides / pharmacology*
  • Perciformes / metabolism*
  • Picrates / chemistry
  • Protein Hydrolysates / chemistry*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism*
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Superoxides / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Peptides
  • Picrates
  • Protein Hydrolysates
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Superoxides
  • Hydroxyl Radical
  • Malondialdehyde
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase