Effects of Simulated Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on Fertilization and Embryo Development

Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2017 Apr;36(2):123-129. doi: 10.1080/15513815.2016.1261974. Epub 2016 Dec 16.


This study investigated the effects of 935-MHz electromagnetic radiation (ER) on fertilization and subsequent embryonic development in mice. Ovulating mice were irradiated at three ER intensities for 4 h/day (d) or 2 h/d for three consecutive days; the ova were then harvested for in vitro fertilization to observe the 6-h fertilization rate (6-FR), 72-h morula rate (72-MR), and 110-h blastula rate (110-BR). Compared with the control group, the 6-FR, 72-MR, and 110-BR were decreased in the low ER intensity group, but the differences were not significant; in the mid- and high-intensity ER groups, 72-MR and 110-BR in the 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups were decreased, showing significant differences compared with the control group. Moreover, the comparison between 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups showed significant differences. Mid- and high-intensity ER at 935 MHz can reduce the fertilization rate in mice, and reduce the blastulation rate, thus reducing the possibility of embryo implantation.

Keywords: Cleavage; blastula; electromagnetic radiation; in vitro fertilization.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Cell Phone*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Electromagnetic Radiation*
  • Embryonic Development / physiology*
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro*
  • Mice
  • Pregnancy
  • Time Factors


  • Calcium