Beneficial Effects of Cooling during Constant Power Non-steady State Cycling

Int J Sports Med. 2017 Feb;38(2):141-149. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-119030. Epub 2016 Dec 16.


This study compared the effects of cooling on the energetic and associated physiological and perceptual responses to constant power, non-steady state cycling. Twelve males cycled at their lactate threshold power for 60 min or until exhaustion under 3 conditions: wearing a cooling vest and sleeves (COOL), a synthetic shirt embedded with an active particle technology claimed to facilitate evaporative heat loss (EVAP), and a standard synthetic shirt (CON). When adjusted for time, the increase in gastrointestinal temperature from baseline was reduced during COOL and EVAP compared to CON (1.44±0.45 and 1.52±0.43 vs. 1.66±0.45°C, p<0.05). Sweat rate was reduced during COOL compared to EVAP and CON (1 312±331 vs. 1 525±393 and 1 550±548 mL·h-1, p<0.01). Gross efficiency decreased over time across conditions (p<0.01), but COOL attenuated this decrease by 22% compared to CON (p<0.05). The rating of perceived exertion was reduced during COOL and EVAP compared to CON (p<0.01). In conclusion, cooling using a vest and sleeves or wearing an active particle technology shirt reduced the rise in gastrointestinal temperature and rating of perceived exertion compared to a standard synthetic shirt. Cooling using a vest and sleeves also reduced the decrease in gross efficiency and sweat rate compared to wearing the standard synthetic shirt.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bicycling / physiology*
  • Blood Volume
  • Body Temperature Regulation / physiology*
  • Body Temperature*
  • Clothing
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Lactic Acid / blood
  • Male
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Physical Exertion*
  • Sweating
  • Thermosensing
  • Young Adult


  • Lactic Acid