Poor Sleep Quality Predicts Hypogonadal Symptoms and Sexual Dysfunction in Male Nonstandard Shift Workers

Urology. 2017 Apr:102:121-125. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2016.11.033. Epub 2016 Dec 14.


Objective: To investigate the impact of sleep quality in hypogonadal symptoms and sexual function in men working nonstandard shifts.

Materials and methods: Men treated at a single andrology clinic between July and October 2014 completed questionnaires assessing sleep quality, hypogonadal symptoms (Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male [ADAM/qADAM]), and sexual function (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]). Serum hormone levels were assessed at the time of survey completion.

Results: One hundred eighty-two men were identified as working nonstandard shifts (work that starts before 7 a.m. or after 2 p.m., rotates, or regularly includes hours outside of the standard 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. workday) with a mean ± SD age of 41.1 ± 10.8 years. Of men working nonstandard shifts, those with better sleep quality had fewer hypogonadal symptoms and better sexual function. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant linear associations between sleep quality and qADAM score (P = .008), positive ADAM responses (P = .003), and IIEF score (P = .0004). When comparing individual groups, men who were "very satisfied" (n = 60) with sleep quality had higher qADAM scores than men who were "somewhat dissatisfied" (P = .02), and men who were "very dissatisfied" had significantly lower IIEF scores than men who were "very satisfied" (P = .001) and "somewhat satisfied" (P = .005). No associations between sleep quality and mean serum testosterone, free testosterone, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels were observed.

Conclusion: Men who work nonstandard shifts and have poor sleep quality are at increased risk for hypogonadal symptoms and sexual dysfunction.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Quality of Life
  • Self Report
  • Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / epidemiology*
  • Shift Work Schedule*
  • Sleep*