Background: Paravalvular aortic regurgitation (PAR) remains a common complication following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), and has been associated with increased mortality. Adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling has been reported in patients with post-TAVR PAR, but the association between adverse LV remodeling and increased mortality remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between PAR, LV remodeling and mortality following TAVR in a non-PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) trial population.
Methods: A total of 195 patients that underwent TAVR was included in the study. The LV ejection fraction (LVEF), LV mass index (LVMI), LV internal dimension at systole (LVIDs) and diastole (LVIDd) were compared between patients with different degrees of PAR at baseline, and at one month and one year after TAVR. Survival analysis was performed for different degrees of PAR and LV remodeling.
Results: PAR ≥moderate was associated with increased mortality (HR 4.58 [1.80-11.63], p = 0.001), but PAR >mild was not. The LVIDd and LVIDs were persistently increased at one year after TAVR in patients with PAR >mild compared to those with PAR ≤mild (5.9 ± 0.8 cm versus 5.4 ± 0.7 cm, p = 0.02 and 4.4 ± 0.8 cm versus 3.9 ± 0.8, p = 0.03, respectively). The LVEF was improved similarly between the two groups at one year after TAVR (p = 0.1). Patients with PAR ≥moderate had significantly more adverse LV remodeling at one month after TAVR in terms of LVIDd, LVIDs, and LVMI. The degree of remodeling as expressed in terms of LVIDd, LVIDs, LVMI and LVEF changes from baseline did not have a direct impact on mortality.
Conclusions: A worse PAR was associated with more adverse LV remodeling and a higher mortality after TAVR in a non-PARTNER patient population.