Hypertensive eye disease: a review

Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017 Jan;45(1):45-53. doi: 10.1111/ceo.12905. Epub 2017 Jan 21.


Hypertension is a risk factor for a number of vision-threatening eye conditions including retinal vascular occlusion, retinal macroaneurysm and non arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. In addition, hypertension may exacerbate the vision-threatening effects of diabetic retinopathy and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. The effects of sustained hypertension are directly visible in the eye as hypertensive retinopathy and choroidopathy, reflecting a pathological process occurring throughout the body. Close collaboration between ophthalmologists and general practitioners/physicians is needed to ensure that hypertensive patients are identified and treated. Timely intervention in these patients may reduce the risk of both vision-threatening and systemic complications.

Keywords: hypertension; retina; retinopathy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Fluorescein Angiography / methods*
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Retinal Diseases / diagnosis
  • Retinal Diseases / etiology*
  • Retinal Vessels / diagnostic imaging*
  • Risk Factors