Dietary salt restriction is beneficial to the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Kidney Int. 2017 Feb;91(2):493-500. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2016.10.018. Epub 2016 Dec 16.


The CRISP study of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) found that urinary sodium excretion associated with the rate of total kidney volume increase. Whether sodium restriction slows the progression of Autosomal Dominant PKD (ADPKD) is not known. To evaluate this we conducted a post hoc analysis of the HALT-PKD clinical trials of renin-angiotensin blockade in patients with ADPKD. Linear mixed models examined whether dietary sodium affected rates of total kidney volume or change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with an eGFR over 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (Study A) or the risk for a composite endpoint of 50% reduction in eGFR, end-stage renal disease or death, or the rate of eGFR decline in patients with an eGFR 25-60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (Study B) all in patients initiated on an under100 mEq sodium diet. During the trial urinary sodium excretion significantly declined by an average of 0.25 and 0.41 mEq/24 hour per month in studies A and B, respectively. In Study A, averaged and time varying urinary sodium excretions were significantly associated with kidney growth (0.43%/year and 0.09%/year, respectively, for each 18 mEq urinary sodium excretion). Averaged urinary sodium excretion was not significantly associated with faster eGFR decline (-0.07 ml/min/1.73m2/year for each 18 mEq urinary sodium excretion). In Study B, the averaged but not time-varying urinary sodium excretion significantly associated with increased risk for the composite endpoint (hazard ratio 1.08 for each 18 mEq urinary sodium excretion) and a significantly faster eGFR decline (-0.09 ml/min/1.73m2/year for each mEq 18 mEq urinary sodium excretion). Thus, sodium restriction is beneficial in the management of ADPKD.

Keywords: CKD progression; autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; kidney volume; low-salt diet; sodium.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Diet, Sodium-Restricted*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate* / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Kidney / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Natriuresis
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / diagnosis
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / diet therapy*
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / physiopathology
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / urine
  • Renal Elimination
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / adverse effects*
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / urine
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult


  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary