Background and aims: Low vitamin D (VITD) may contribute to statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). We examined the influence of baseline and change in VITD in patients with verified SAMS.
Methods: SAMS was verified in 120 patients with prior statin muscle complaints using 8-week randomized, double-blind crossover trials of simvastatin (SIMVA) 20 mg/d and placebo. 25 (OH)vitamin D was measured at each phase of the trial.
Results: Forty-three patients (35.8%) experienced muscle pain on SIMVA but not placebo, exhibiting confirmed SAMS. VITD (mean ± standard deviation) prior to SIMVA treatment was not different between patients who did (31.7 ± 12.1 ng/mL, n = 43) or did not (31.6 ± 10.3 ng/mL, n = 77) develop SAMS and did not predict SAMS (p = 0.96). The change in VITD with SIMVA treatment was not different between patients with and without SAMS (0.3 ± 5.9 vs. 0.2 ± 8.3 ng/mL, respectively) and did not predict SAMS (p = 0.96). The proportion of patients classified as VITD deficient (<20 ng/mL) did not differ between patients with (n = 16) and without (n = 10) SAMS (χ2 = 1.45; p = 0.23), nor did the proportion of patients classified as VITD insufficient (<30 ng/mL) (n = 42 vs. 48; χ2 < 0.01 and p = 0.94). Both baseline and on-statin VITD were inversely related to the change in creatine kinase (CK) with statin therapy (p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively), independent of SAMS (p = 0.36 and 0.35).
Conclusions: Baseline VITD, VITD deficiency/insufficiency and changes in VITD with statin therapy do not predict SAMS in patients with rigorously verified SAMS. However, low VITD may exacerbate statin-induced muscle injury and could contribute to SAMS development with a longer duration of statin treatment.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01140308.
Keywords: Muscle symptoms; Statin myalgia; Vitamin D deficiency.
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