Pre-eclampsia and risk of subsequent hypertension: in an American Indian population

Hypertens Pregnancy. 2017 May;36(2):131-137. doi: 10.1080/10641955.2016.1250905. Epub 2016 Dec 21.


Background and objectives: Pre-eclampsia (PE) shares a number of proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms related to those implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, and impaired renal regulation. PE has also been associated with subsequent hypertension, CVD, and related mortality in later life.

Methods: At follow-up, the four most recent blood pressures, body mass index (BMI), and use of hypertensive medications were recorded from clinic visits of 130 PE cases and 289 normal pregnancies. Student's t test, Chi-square testing, multivariate linear, and logistic regression were used in analysis.

Results: Follow-up measurements occurred a mean of 13.11 years post PE pregnancy. Multivariate linear regression showed a significant and independent association between current systolic blood pressure and previous history of PE (β = 4.47, p = 0.04), while adjusting for age, BMI, and blood pressure from 1 year prior to and up to the 20th week of gestation. A similarly adjusted multivariate logistic regression model found an odds ratio of 3.43, 95% CI 1.83-6.43, p = 0.001 for subsequent hypertension. Logistic regression analysis of the quartile with follow-up of less than 7.19 years also shows independent association of prior PE with subsequent hypertension.

Discussion and conclusions: PE appears to confer risk of subsequent hypertension on this cohort of American Indian women within as little as 8 years. This risk is independent of additional risk factors such as increased age, BMI, and blood pressure prior to 20 weeks of gestation. There is evidence of increased risk among those with more severe PE.

Keywords: Case–control study; hypertension; multivariable analysis; preeclampsia.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Indians, North American / statistics & numerical data*
  • Middle Aged
  • North Dakota / epidemiology
  • Pre-Eclampsia / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult