Ambient PM2.5 Aluminum and Elemental Carbon and Placental Abruption Morbidity

J Occup Environ Med. 2017 Feb;59(2):148-153. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000927.


Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess relationship between exposure to particulate matter (PM) chemicals during pregnancy and the odd of having placental abruption.

Methods: The 2004 to 2007 Florida linked birth certificate records and the Environmental Protection Agency PM speciation data were used. We were interested in placental abruption. We computed adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

Results: The odds for placental abruption were increased per interquartile range (IQR) increase in aluminum during the first trimester (OR = 1.10; CI = 1.02 to 1.18) and marginally during the entire pregnancy (OR = 1.06; CI = 0.94 to 1.19). The most substantial association was observed for elemental carbon exposure during the first trimester, resulting in 38% increased odd (OR = 1.09; CI = 1.09 to 1.75) per IQR increase in elemental carbon.

Conclusion: Women exposure to PM2.5 aluminum and elemental carbon during pregnancy has an increased odd of having placental abruption.

MeSH terms

  • Abruptio Placentae / epidemiology*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aluminum / toxicity*
  • Carbon / toxicity*
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects
  • Environmental Exposure / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Florida / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Odds Ratio
  • Particulate Matter / adverse effects*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Trimester, First*
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Particulate Matter
  • Carbon
  • Aluminum