GPS-PAIL: prediction of lysine acetyltransferase-specific modification sites from protein sequences

Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 22:6:39787. doi: 10.1038/srep39787.


Protein acetylation catalyzed by specific histone acetyltransferases (HATs) is an essential post-translational modification (PTM) and involved in the regulation a broad spectrum of biological processes in eukaryotes. Although several ten thousands of acetylation sites have been experimentally identified, the upstream HATs for most of the sites are unclear. Thus, the identification of HAT-specific acetylation sites is fundamental for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of protein acetylation. In this work, we first collected 702 known HAT-specific acetylation sites of 205 proteins from the literature and public data resources, and a motif-based analysis demonstrated that different types of HATs exhibit similar but considerably distinct sequence preferences for substrate recognition. Using 544 human HAT-specific sites for training, we constructed a highly useful tool of GPS-PAIL for the prediction of HAT-specific sites for up to seven HATs, including CREBBP, EP300, HAT1, KAT2A, KAT2B, KAT5 and KAT8. The prediction accuracy of GPS-PAIL was critically evaluated, with a satisfying performance. Using GPS-PAIL, we also performed a large-scale prediction of potential HATs for known acetylation sites identified from high-throughput experiments in nine eukaryotes. Both online service and local packages were implemented, and GPS-PAIL is freely available at:

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Databases, Protein*
  • Lysine Acetyltransferases / chemistry*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • Sequence Analysis, Protein*
  • Software*


  • Lysine Acetyltransferases