Coronatine (COR) facilitates entry of bacteria into the plant apoplast by stimulating stomata opening. COR-induced signaling events at stomata remain unclear. We found that the COR and jasmonate isoleucine (JA-Ile) co-receptor JAZ2 is constitutively expressed in guard cells and modulates stomatal dynamics during bacterial invasion We analyzed tissue expression patterns of AtJAZ genes and measured stomata opening and pathogen resistance in loss- and gain-of-function mutants. Arabidopsis jaz2 mutants are partially impaired in pathogen-induced stomatal closing and more susceptible to Pseudomonas. Gain-of-function mutations in JAZ2 prevent stomatal reopening by COR and are highly resistant to bacterial penetration. The JAZ2 targets MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 directly regulate the expression of ANAC19, ANAC55 and ANAC72 to modulate stomata aperture. Due to the antagonistic interactions between the salicylic acid (SA) and JA defense pathways, efforts to increase resistance to biotrophs result in enhanced susceptibility to necrotrophs, and vice versa. Remarkably, dominant jaz2Δjas mutants are resistant to Pseudomonas syringae but retain unaltered resistance against necrotrophs. Our results demonstrate the existence of a COI1-JAZ2-MYC2,3,4-ANAC19,55,72 module responsible for the regulation of stomatal aperture that is hijacked by bacterial COR to promote infection. They also provide novel strategies for crop protection against biotrophs without compromising resistance to necrotrophs.
Keywords: ANAC; Pseudomonas syringae; JAZ repressors; MYC transcription factors; coronatine (COR); crop protection; pathogenesis; stomata.
© 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.