Three-Dimensional Handheld Scanning to Quantify Head-Shape Changes in Spring-Assisted Surgery for Sagittal Craniosynostosis

J Craniofac Surg. 2016 Nov;27(8):2117-2123. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003108.


Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is an important tool for diagnostics, surgical planning, and evaluation of surgical outcomes in craniofacial procedures. Gold standard for acquiring 3D imaging is computed tomography that entails ionizing radiations and, in young children, a general anaesthesia. Three-dimensional photographic imaging is an alternative method to assess patients who have undergone calvarial reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of 3D handheld scanning photography in a cohort of patients who underwent spring-assisted correction surgery for scaphocephaly. Pre- and postoperative 3D scans acquired in theater and at the 3-week follow-up in clinic were postprocessed for 9 patients. Cephalic index (CI), head circumference, volume, sagittal length, and coronal width over the head at pre-op, post-op, and follow-up were measured from the 3D scans. Cephalic index from 3D scans was compared with measurements from planar x-rays. Statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to calculate the 3D mean anatomical head shape of the 9 patients at the pre-op, post-op, and follow-up. No significant differences were observed in the CI between 3D and x-ray. Cephalic index, volume, and coronal width increased significantly over time. Mean shapes from SSM visualized the overall and regional 3D changes due to the expansion of the springs in situ. Three-dimensional handheld scanning followed by SSM proved to be an efficacious and practical method to evaluate 3D shape outcomes after spring-assisted cranioplasty in individual patients and the population.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Cephalometry / instrumentation
  • Cephalometry / methods
  • Craniosynostoses / diagnostic imaging
  • Craniosynostoses / surgery*
  • Craniotomy / instrumentation
  • Craniotomy / methods*
  • Female
  • Head / surgery
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / instrumentation
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods
  • Infant
  • Jaw Abnormalities / surgery
  • Male
  • Multimodal Imaging / methods
  • Photography / instrumentation
  • Photography / methods
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods
  • Postoperative Period
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Skull / surgery
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed