Collagen is a macromolecule that has versatile roles in physiology, ranging from structural support to mediating cell signaling. Formation of mature collagen fibrils out of procollagen α-chains requires a variety of enzymes and chaperones in a complex process spanning both intracellular and extracellular post-translational modifications. These processes include modifications of amino acids, folding of procollagen α-chains into a triple-helical configuration and subsequent stabilization, facilitation of transportation out of the cell, cleavage of propeptides, aggregation, cross-link formation, and finally the formation of mature fibrils. Disruption of any of the proteins involved in these biosynthesis steps potentially result in a variety of connective tissue diseases because of a destabilized extracellular matrix. In this review, we give a revised overview of the enzymes and chaperones currently known to be relevant to the conversion of lysine and proline into hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, respectively, and the O-glycosylation of hydroxylysine and give insights into the consequences when these steps are disrupted.
Keywords: Bruck syndrome; Collagen; Ehlers–Danlos syndrome; connective tissue disorders; fibrosis; lysyl hydroxylation; osteogenesis imperfecta; prolyl hydroxylation.