A Quick Reference on Chloride

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2017 Mar;47(2):219-222. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2016.10.008. Epub 2016 Dec 20.


Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations.

Keywords: Analysis; Chloride; Reference; Sodium bicarbonate.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acid-Base Imbalance / diagnosis
  • Acid-Base Imbalance / veterinary*
  • Animals
  • Chlorides / metabolism*
  • Chlorides / pharmacology
  • Reference Values
  • Sodium Bicarbonate / pharmacology


  • Chlorides
  • Sodium Bicarbonate