SGLT-2 inhibitors: Their pleiotropic properties

Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2017 Oct-Dec;11(4):311-315. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2016.12.003. Epub 2016 Dec 9.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a global pandemic. Nowadays, it is estimated that approximately 415 million people all over the world have diabetes. The sodium glucose co-transporters 2 inhibitors are a new class of glucose-lowering agents, which act through a novel mechanism by producing a decline in glucose re-absorption in the kidney, thereby increasing glycosuria and decreasing serum glucose levels. Data suggest that apart from lowering HbA1c, they produce a small but significant weight loss and a small decrease in blood pressure. Also, they possess nephro-protective potential. These drugs are demonstrated to restore intra-glomerular pressure by increasing angiotensin (1-7), which exerts vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Their profile on cardiovascular events is still under investigation. In this review, the pleiotropic potential of this novel class of glucose-lowering levels will be discussed. Further research is warranted to determine their safety in the long term.

Keywords: Angiotensin (1–7); Cardiovascular risk; Glycosuria; Kidney; Safety profile; Sodium-glucose-co-transporters 2 inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / chemically induced
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors