Aims: The efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is known to vary considerably with pacing location, however the most effective set of metrics by which to select the optimal pacing site is not yet well understood. Computational modelling offers a powerful methodology to comprehensively test the effect of pacing location in silico and investigate how to best optimize therapy using clinically available metrics for the individual patient.
Methods and results: Personalized computational models of cardiac electromechanics were used to perform an in silico left ventricle (LV) pacing site optimization study as part of biventricular CRT in three patient cases. Maps of response to therapy according to changes in total activation time (ΔTAT) and acute haemodynamic response (AHR) were generated and compared with preclinical metrics of electrical function, strain, stress, and mechanical work to assess their suitability for selecting the optimal pacing site. In all three patients, response to therapy was highly sensitive to pacing location, with laterobasal locations being optimal. ΔTAT and AHR were found to be correlated (ρ < -0.80), as were AHR and the preclinical activation time at the pacing site (ρ ≥ 0.73), however pacing in the last activated site did not result in the optimal response to therapy in all cases.
Conclusion: This computational modelling study supports pacing in laterobasal locations, optimizing pacing site by minimizing paced QRS duration and pacing in regions activated late at sinus rhythm. Results demonstrate information content is redundant using multiple preclinical metrics. Of significance, the correlation of AHR with ΔTAT indicates that minimization of QRSd is a promising metric for optimization of lead placement.
Keywords: Cardiac resynchronization therapy; Computational modelling; Heart failure; Optimization; Patient-specific.
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