Twenty-six very-low-birth-weight preterm infants with and without intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were followed up prospectively from birth to school age to determine the relationship between ICH and subsequent neurologic and cognitive outcomes. All children had sequential cranial ultrasound examinations at birth and neurologic assessments at 3-month intervals during the first year, at 1 year of age, and at 5 to 6 years; psychometric assessments were done at 5 to 6 years. Seventeen children had no ICH, 3 had grade 1 ICH, 1 had grade 3 ICH, and 5 had grade 4 ICH. The 1-year Amiel-Tison neurologic assessment in 25 infants demonstrated that 14 were normal, 3 were suspect, and 8 were abnormal. By 5 to 6 years of age, 5 of 8 children neurologically abnormal at 1 year remained abnormal, 2 of 3 children neurologically suspect at 1 year remained suspect; while 9 of 15 children neurologically normal at 1 year remained normal, the remaining 6 had become suspect. The predominant neurologic abnormality at 5 to 6 years was subtle neurologic dysfunctioning. The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 5 to 6 years revealed a mean group IQ score of 92.1. The Beery Visual Motor Integration Test results demonstrated that 18 of 26 children had mild to severe visual motor perceptual difficulties. Severe ICH (grades 3 and 4) correlated with abnormal neurologic performances at 1 and 5 to 6 years. Mild ICH (grade 1) and no ICH did not correlate with any one of the 1-year neurologic classifications. The 1-year status correlated with the 5- to 6-year neurologic outcome best for children who were either neurologically suspect or abnormal at age 1 year. The 1-year neurologic score did not correlate with 5- to 6-year IQ and Beery Visual Motor Integration Test scores.