Bovine pulmonary artery cells in cell culture were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Pasteurella haemolytica serotype Al. This resulted in severe membrane damage, which caused a time- and dose-dependent release of lactate dehydrogenase that was first detected 4 hours after exposure and reached a maximal mean release of 67% after 24 hours of exposure to 1 micrograms of LPS/ml. Mean release of 51chromium followed by a similar pattern and reached a maximum of 61% following 24 hours of exposure to 10 micrograms of LPS/ml. Morphologically, endothelial cells responded to LPS by marked cell membrane retraction, the formation of numerous cytoplasmic blebs, and ruffling of the cell membrane. Subsequently, the cells became round and detached. Cell detachment reached a mean of 95% following 8 hours of exposure to 1 micrograms of LPS/ml. These studies demonstrated that P haemolytica LPS is capable of causing direct damage to bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, which may be important in the pathogenesis of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.