mTORC1 and Muscle Regeneration Are Regulated by the LINC00961-encoded SPAR Polypeptide

Nature. 2017 Jan 12;541(7636):228-232. doi: 10.1038/nature21034. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Abstract

Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein-coding transcripts by definition, recent studies have shown that a fraction of putative small open reading frames within lncRNAs are translated. However, the biological significance of these hidden polypeptides is still unclear. Here we identify and functionally characterize a novel polypeptide encoded by the lncRNA LINC00961. This polypeptide is conserved between human and mouse, is localized to the late endosome/lysosome and interacts with the lysosomal v-ATPase to negatively regulate mTORC1 activation. This regulation of mTORC1 is specific to activation of mTORC1 by amino acid stimulation, rather than by growth factors. Hence, we termed this polypeptide 'small regulatory polypeptide of amino acid response' (SPAR). We show that the SPAR-encoding lncRNA is highly expressed in a subset of tissues and use CRISPR/Cas9 engineering to develop a SPAR-polypeptide-specific knockout mouse while maintaining expression of the host lncRNA. We find that the SPAR-encoding lncRNA is downregulated in skeletal muscle upon acute injury, and using this in vivo model we establish that SPAR downregulation enables efficient activation of mTORC1 and promotes muscle regeneration. Our data provide a mechanism by which mTORC1 activation may be finely regulated in a tissue-specific manner in response to injury, and a paradigm by which lncRNAs encoding small polypeptides can modulate general biological pathways and processes to facilitate tissue-specific requirements, consistent with their restricted and highly regulated expression profile.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Amino Acids / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems / genetics
  • Endosomes / metabolism
  • Gene Editing
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Lysosomes / enzymology
  • Lysosomes / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Mice
  • Multiprotein Complexes / agonists
  • Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism*
  • Muscles / injuries
  • Muscles / physiology*
  • Organ Specificity
  • Peptides / deficiency
  • Peptides / genetics
  • Peptides / metabolism*
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / genetics*
  • Regeneration / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*

Substances

  • Amino Acids
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Peptides
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • SPAR polypeptide, human
  • SPAR polypeptide, mouse
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases