One challenge to HCV elimination through therapeutic intervention is reinfection. The aim of this analysis was to calculate the incidence of HCV reinfection among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals treated for recent HCV infection (estimated infection duration <18 months). Individuals with recent HCV infection who achieved an end-of-treatment response in four open-label studies between 2004 and 2015 in Australia and New Zealand were assessed for HCV reinfection, confirmed by sequencing of the Core-E2 and/or NS5B regions. Reinfection incidence was calculated using person-time of observation. Exact Poisson regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with HCV reinfection. The cohort at risk for reinfection (n=120; 83% male; median age 36 years) was composed of HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (53%) and people who inject drugs (current 49%, ever 69%). Total follow-up time at risk was 135 person-years (median 1.08 years, range 0.17, 2.53). Ten cases of HCV reinfection were identified, for an incidence of 7.4 per 100 py (95% CI 4.0, 13.8). Reinfection incidence was significantly higher among participants who reported injection drug use at end of or post-treatment, irrespective of HIV status (15.5 per 100 py, 95% CI 7.8, 31.1). In adjusted analysis, factors associated with reinfection were older age (aIRR 5.3, 95% CI 1.15, 51.5, P=.042) and injection drug use at end of or post-treatment (aIRR 7.9, 95% CI 1.6, 77.2, P=.008). High reinfection incidence following treatment for recent HCV infection in individuals with ongoing risk behaviour emphasizes the need for post-treatment surveillance, harm reduction strategies and education in at-risk populations.
Keywords: HIV; acute; hepatitis C infection; recent; reinfection; treatment.
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.