Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016 Dec 24;9(1):4.
doi: 10.3390/toxins9010004.

Modeling Growth and Toxin Production of Toxigenic Fungi Signaled in Cheese Under Different Temperature and Water Activity Regimes

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Modeling Growth and Toxin Production of Toxigenic Fungi Signaled in Cheese Under Different Temperature and Water Activity Regimes

Marco Camardo Leggieri et al. Toxins (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro and model the effect of temperature (T) and water activity (aw) conditions on growth and toxin production by some toxigenic fungi signaled in cheese. Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium camemberti, P. citrinum, P. crustosum, P. nalgiovense, P. nordicum, P. roqueforti, P. verrucosum were considered they were grown under different T (0-40 °C) and aw (0.78-0.99) regimes. The highest relative growth occurred around 25 °C; all the fungi were very susceptible to aw and 0.99 was optimal for almost all species (except for A. versicolor, awopt = 0.96). The highest toxin production occurred between 15 and 25 °C and 0.96-0.99 aw. Therefore, during grana cheese ripening, managed between 15 and 22 °C, ochratoxin A (OTA), penitrem A (PA), roquefortine-C (ROQ-C) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) are apparently at the highest production risk. Bete and logistic function described fungal growth under different T and aw regimes well, respectively. Bete function described also STC, PA, ROQ-C and OTA production as well as function of T. These models would be very useful as starting point to develop a mechanistic model to predict fungal growth and toxin production during cheese ripening and to help advising the most proper setting of environmental factors to minimize the contamination risk.

Keywords: Aspergillus; Penicillium; mycotoxin; ochratoxin; roquefortine; sterigmatocystin.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Surface response curves of fungal relative growths (expressed as percentage on the maximum growth, numbers on the isoplethes) at different incubation times (3, 7, 10, 14 days) under different T regimes (0–40 °C, step 5 °C; aw = 0.99). (A) A. versicolor; (B) P. camemberti; (C) P. citrinum; (D) P. crustosum; (E) P. nalgiovense; (F) P. nordicum; (G) P. roqueforti; (H) P. verrucosum.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Surface response curves of fungal relative growth (expressed as percentage on the maximum growth, numbers on the isoplethes) at different incubation times (3, 7, 10, 14 days) under different aw regimes (0.87–0.99; step 0.03; T = 20 °C). (A) A. versicolor; (B) P. camemberti; (C) P. citrinum; (D) P. crustosum; (E) P. nalgiovense; (F) P. nordicum; (G) P. roqueforti; (H) P. verrucosum.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Dynamic of relative growth of (A) P. nalgiovense and (B) P. verrucosum, after 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of incubation, at different temperature regimes (0–40 °C). Data were fitted (dotted line) by a Bete function (see Table 3 for equation parameters).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Dynamic of relative growth of the studied fungi, at different temperature regimes (0–40 °C). Data were fitted by a Bete function (see Table 3 for equation parameters). (A) A. versicolor; (B) P. camemberti; (C) P. citrinum; (D) P. crustosum; (E) P. nalgiovense; (F) P. nordicum; (G) P. roqueforti; (H) P. verrucosum.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Logistic equations (lines, refer to Table 3 for equation parameters) defining the dynamics of fungal growth at different aw regimes (0.78–0.99). (A) P. versicolor; (B) P. camemberti; (C) P. citrinum; (D) P. crustosum; (E) P. nalgiovense; (F) P. nordicum; (G) P. roqueforti; (H) P. verrucosum. (for Figure 5A suitable aw start from 0.78 but the same range of other fungi was used).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Boundaries, derived from Equation (4), summarizing the combination of T and aw conditions to reach relative growth =0.5 for each fungus considered in the study.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Dynamic of mycotoxins production rate for: (A) STC—A. versicolor; (B) PA—P. crustosum; (C) ROQ-C—P. crustosum; (D) OTA—P. nordicum; (E) ROQ-C—P. roqueforti; (F) OTA—P. verrucosum, at different temperature regimes (5–35 °C). Data were fitted by a Beta function (see Table 3 for details).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 6 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Banjara N., Suhr M.J., Hallen-Adams H.E. Diversity of yeast and mold species from a variety of cheese types. Curr. Microbiol. 2015;70:792–800. doi: 10.1007/s00284-015-0790-1. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Gkatzionis K., Yunita D., Linforth R.S.T., Dickinson M., Dodd C.E.R. Diversity and activities of yeasts from different parts of a Stilton cheese. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2014;107:109–116. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.02.016. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Cogan T.M., Hill C. Cheese starter cultures. In: Fox P.F., editor. Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology. Volume 1. Springer; New York, NY, USA: 1993. pp. 193–255.
    1. De Santi M., Sisti M., Barbieri E., Piccoli G., Brandi G., Stocchi V. A combined morphologic and molecular approach for characterizing fungal microflora from a traditional Italian cheese (Fossa cheese) Int. Dairy J. 2010;20:465–471. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2010.02.004. - DOI
    1. Malacarne M., Summer A., Panari G., Pecorari M. Caratterizzazione chimico-fisica della maturazione del Parmigiano-Reggiano. Sci. Tec. Latt. Casearia. 2006;57:215–228.

Publication types

Feedback