A novel neuropeptide which stimulates adenylate cyclase in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures was isolated from ovine hypothalamic tissues. Its amino acid sequence was revealed as: His-Ser-Asp-Gly-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asp-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Arg-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Gln- Met-Ala- Val-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Ala-Ala-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys-Arg-Tyr-Lys-Gln-Arg-Val-Lys-Asn-Lys - NH2. The N-terminal sequence shows 68% homology with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) but its adenylate cyclase stimulating activity was at least 1000 times greater than that of VIP. It increased release of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), corticotropin (ACTH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from superfused rat pituitary cells at as small a dose as 10(-10)M (GH, PRL, ACTH) or 10(-9)M (LH). Whether these hypophysiotropic effects are the primary actions of the peptide or what physiological action in the pituitary is linked with the stimulation of adenylate cyclase by this peptide remains to be determined.