General and Abdominal Obesity Is Related to Physical Activity, Smoking and Sleeping Behaviours and Mediated by the Educational Level: Findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain

PLoS One. 2016 Dec 29;11(12):e0169027. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169027. eCollection 2016.


The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of socioeconomic (SES) and lifestyle factors, with the conditions of overweight (OW), general (OB) and abdominal obesity (AO) in Spanish adults. A representative sample of 1655 Spanish adults (18 to 65 years) from the ANIBES Study was investigated. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference), demographic and SES data (region and habitant population size, educational level, family income, unemployment rate), physical activity (PA) and other lifestyle factors (sleeping time and frequency of viewing television). OW, OB and AO were determined in each participant. Being male, older than 40 years, and watching television more frequently were associated with higher risk of OB and AO, whereas those with a higher level of education, smokers, and more time in sleeping and in vigorous PA, but not in moderate-vigorous PA, were associated with a lower risk. Living in the Atlantic region and stating no answer to the question regarding family income were also associated with lower risk of AO. Strategies for preventing and reducing OB and AO should consider improving sleeping habits and PA. They should also pay more attention to the most vulnerable groups such as those less educated.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Educational Status*
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Exercise*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity, Abdominal / epidemiology*
  • Obesity, Abdominal / metabolism
  • Obesity, Abdominal / physiopathology*
  • Sleep*
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Young Adult

Grant support

ANIBES Study was financially supported by Coca Cola Iberia through an agreement with the Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN). The funding sponsors had no role in the study design, data collection, analysis or interpretation of the data; the writing of the manuscript; or the decision to publish the results.