Perinatal lethal osteogenesis imperfecta (OI type II), a heritable disorder of connective tissue occurs approximately once in 60,000 live births. Phenotypic characteristics include defective cranial ossification and severe skeletal deformity due to intrauterine rib and long bone fractures. Lethal OI may be associated with intracranial hemorrhage or severe respiratory insufficiency. Pulmonary hypoplasia has been previously observed in OI type II, but has not been defined clinically. The infant described herein was born with OI type II and pulmonary hypoplasia. Pathological examination of airway branching patterns indicated that lung development had progressed to only the 10 week stage with immature acinar development. Investigation type I collagen synthesis by cultured dermal fibroblasts revealed the presence of electrophoretically abnormal alpha 1(I) polypeptides. These findings suggest that biochemically regulated processes, as well as mechanical factors, may impeded pulmonary development in similar cases of OI type II.