Tobacco chewing, alcohol and nasal snuff in cancer of the gingiva in Kerala, India

Br J Cancer. 1989 Oct;60(4):638-43. doi: 10.1038/bjc.1989.330.


A case-control study of cancer of the gingiva was carried out in Kerala, Southern India, using 187 cases and 895 hospital-based controls. We investigated the effects on risk in males of pan (betel)-tobacco chewing, bidi and cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and taking snuff. In females only pan-tobacco chewing was investigated as very few females indulged in the other habits. Among males, significant positive associations with risk were observed for pan-tobacco chewing (P less than 0.001), bidi smoking (P less than 0.001) alcohol drinking (P less than 0.001) and snuff use (P less than 0.05). In females, pan-tobacco chewing had a similar predisposing effect (P less than 0.001). Daily frequency of pan-tobacco chewing was the strongest predictor of risk in males, with a relative risk of 15.07 associated with chewing ten or more quids per day. The corresponding relative risk among females was 13.69. In males a relative risk of 3.20 was associated with smoking more than 20 bidis per day, and relative risks of 2.62 and 3.90 were associated with regular use of alcohol and snuff respectively. Surprisingly high relative risks were observed in association with occasional use of pan-tobacco, bidi, cigarettes, alcohol and snuff. A stepwise logistic regression analysis yielded four predictors: pan-tobacco daily frequency, duration of bidi use, and alcohol and snuff use (regular versus never). There were also significantly elevated risks associated with occasional indulgence in these four habits. Total lifetime exposure was no better at predicting risk than daily frequency or duration of habits.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Alcoholic Beverages / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Gingival Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Humans
  • India
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Plants, Toxic*
  • Risk Factors
  • Tobacco*
  • Tobacco, Smokeless*