This study examined the effect of resistance exercise on the production, recruitment, percentage, and adhesion characteristics of granulocytes with and without polyphenol (PPB) supplementation. Thirty-eight untrained men were randomized into three groups: PPB (n = 13, 21.8 ± 2.5 years, 171.2 ± 5.5 cm, 71.2 ± 8.2 kg), placebo (PL; n = 15, 21.6 ± 2.5 years, 176.5 ± 4.9 cm, 84.0 ± 15.7 kg), or control (CON; n = 10, 23.3 ± 4.3 years, 173.7 ± 12.6 cm, 77.3 ± 16.3 kg). Blood samples were obtained pre (PRE), immediately (IP), 1 h (1H), 5 h (5H), 24 h (24H), 48 h (48H), and 96 h (96H) postresistance exercise (PPB/PL) or rest (CON). Fine-needle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at PRE, 1H, 5H, and 48H. Plasma concentrations and intramuscular content of interleukin-8 (IL-8), granulocyte (G-CSF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were analyzed via multiplex assays. Changes in relative number of circulating granulocytes and adhesion receptor (CD11b) were assessed using flow cytometry. Intramuscular IL-8 was significantly elevated at 1H, 5H, and 48H (P < 0.001). Area under the curve analysis indicated a greater intramuscular IL-8 content in PL than PPB (P = 0.011). Across groups, circulating G-CSF was elevated from PRE at IP (P < 0.001), 1H (P = 0.011), and 5H (P = 0.025), while GM-CSF was elevated at IP (P < 0.001) and 1H (P = 0.007). Relative number of granulocytes was elevated at 1H (P < 0.001), 5H (P < 0.001), and 24H (P = 0.005, P = 0.006) in PPB and PL, respectively. Across groups, granulocyte CD11b expression was upregulated from PRE to IP (P < 0.001) and 1H (P = 0.015). Results indicated an increase in circulating CD11b on granulocytes, and IL-8 within the muscle following intense resistance exercise. Polyphenol supplementation may attenuate the IL-8 response, however, did not affect granulocyte percentage and adhesion molecule expression in peripheral blood following resistance exercise.
Keywords: CD11b/CD18; exercise immunology; granulocyte colony stimulating factor; granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor; inflammation; interleukin‐8.
© 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.