The nature and biology of basement membranes

Matrix Biol. 2017 Jan;57-58:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.matbio.2016.12.009. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Abstract

Basement membranes are delicate, nanoscale and pliable sheets of extracellular matrices that often act as linings or partitions in organisms. Previously considered as passive scaffolds segregating polarized cells, such as epithelial or endothelial cells, from the underlying mesenchyme, basement membranes have now reached the center stage of biology. They play a multitude of roles from blood filtration to muscle homeostasis, from storing growth factors and cytokines to controlling angiogenesis and tumor growth, from maintaining skin integrity and neuromuscular structure to affecting adipogenesis and fibrosis. Here, we will address developmental, structural and biochemical aspects of basement membranes and discuss some of the pathogenetic mechanisms causing diseases linked to abnormal basement membranes.

Keywords: Collagen; Discoidin domain receptor; Heparan sulfate proteoglycan; Integrin; Laminin.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Agrin / genetics
  • Agrin / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Basement Membrane / metabolism*
  • Basement Membrane / pathology
  • Bone Diseases, Developmental / genetics*
  • Bone Diseases, Developmental / metabolism
  • Bone Diseases, Developmental / pathology
  • Collagen Type IV / genetics
  • Collagen Type IV / metabolism
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / genetics*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / metabolism
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / pathology
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism
  • Extracellular Matrix / pathology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans / chemistry
  • Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Laminin / genetics
  • Laminin / metabolism
  • Lupus Nephritis / genetics*
  • Lupus Nephritis / metabolism
  • Lupus Nephritis / pathology
  • Mechanotransduction, Cellular
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Mutation*
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism

Substances

  • Agrin
  • Collagen Type IV
  • Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
  • Laminin
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • nidogen