Aims: The hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcome study demonstrated a continuous association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels below those diagnostic of diabetes and adverse neonatal outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether the same association was found in a Mediterranean population.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of singleton pregnancies attended at our Hospital between 2008 and 2015 (n = 5203). FPG was evaluated in the second trimester, and it was divided into 7 categories (1 < 75, 2 75-79, 3 80-84, 4 85-89, 5 90-94, 6 95-99 and 7 100-124 mg/dL). Pregnancy outcomes included elective cesarean delivery, gestational hypertensive disorders (GHD), large for gestational age (LGA), small for gestational age (SGA), macrosomia, prematurity, severe prematurity and APGAR at 1 min <7.
Results: Maternal age was 33.8 ± 3.8 years, and BMI at first antenatal visit was 22.9 ± 3.5 kg/m2; mean FPG was 79 ± 7 mg/dL. A positive association was observed between FPG and LGA (p < 0.001), GHD (p = 0.004) and prematurity both <37 and <34 weeks of gestation (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004). FPG and SGA were inversely related (p = 0,038). FPG was not significantly related to rate of C-section or APGAR. Adjusted odds ratios associated with 1 standard deviation increase in the fasting plasma glucose (7 mg/dL) were 1.26 (1.15 to 1.37) for LGA, 1.28 (1.09 to 1.49) for GHD and 0.83 (0.74-0.93) for SGA. In a multivariate analysis controlling for confounders, FPG remained associated with LGA.
Conclusions: We found an association between FPG levels, below those diagnostic of gestational diabetes according to our guidelines, and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in a Mediterranean population.
Keywords: Fasting glucose; Mediterranean and gestational diabetes; Pregnancy outcome.