Since the prevalence of several risk factors for cervix uteri cancer, such as sexual activity patterns, cigarette smoking, and contraceptive use, has changed over time, the authors analyzed US trends for this cancer during the 1970s to 1980s to search for corresponding variations. Invasive cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates continued to decrease among blacks and whites, although declines are moderating or plateauing among young whites. Carcinoma in situ rates have not changed greatly or have declined, more so among blacks than whites. Excess risks among blacks are less evident among younger than older age groups. Increasing trends were seen only among whites in certain age groups or with certain histologic types. Declining trends in cervical cancer appear related to the widespread use of cervical cytologic screening programs, which have counteracted increases anticipated from changes in risk factor prevalence. Continued surveillance is warranted, however, with special attention to the trends in cervical adenocarcinoma.