Adverse changes in nutrition are prevalent and are strong indicators of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) proposed a common nomenclature and diagnostic criteria to identify protein-energy wasting (PEW) in CKD patients. We examined the nutritional status in 1,834 adults with predialysis CKD enrolled in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) study. As there was a need for further understanding of nutritional status and associated factors in CKD, we evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of PEW in adults with predialysis CKD. The prevalence of PEW was about 9.0% according to ISRNM criteria and tended to increase with advanced stage in predialysis CKD. Those who concurrently had PEW, inflammation, and CVD were a small proportion (0.4%). In multivariate logistic regression model, PEW was independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-0.99), total CO₂ (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99), physical activity (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26-0.69), comorbid diabetes (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.09-2.59), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06). Our study suggests that PEW increases with advanced CKD stage. PEW is independently associated with renal function, low total CO₂, low physical activity, comorbid diabetes, and increased hs-CRP in adults with predialysis CKD.
Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease; Inflammation; Nutrition; Protein-Energy Wasting.