Introduction: The study aimed to explore clinical influence of prostatic stones on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), seminal plasma cytokines, and serum biomarkers.
Materials and methods: A total of 70 men aged ≤50 years with LUTS divided into 2 groups: group with stones (GSt) and group without prostatic stones (GNoSt). All subjects completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire and National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) scoring questionnaire. Pre- and post-prostate massage test and uroflowmetry were performed. The serum concentration of total prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and free/total PSA (f/t PSA) ratio, seminal concentration of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured.
Results: GSt subjects had significantly more severe symptoms based on IPSS answers (p = 0.0289). All domains in NIH-CPSI scores were significantly higher in the GSt group: pain (p = 0.001), urinary symptoms (p = 0.023), quality of life (p = 0.008), and with overall (p = 0.003). GSt subjects also had significantly lower maximum urinary flow (Qmax; p = 0.011), lower f/t PSA ratio (p = 0.048), and higher concentration of IL-1β (p = 0.011) and IL-8 (p = 0.001).
Conclusions: Prostatic stones may influence the severity of LUTS and the symptoms of chronic prostatitis. They might reduce Qmax rate and lead to reduction of the f/t PSA ratio and produce more severe inflammation causing increased seminal concentration of IL-1β and IL-8.
Keywords: Cytokines; Inflammation; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Prostate; Prostate stones.
© 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.