Clinical and Biochemical Influence of Prostatic Stones

Urol Int. 2017;98(4):449-455. doi: 10.1159/000455161. Epub 2017 Jan 5.


Introduction: The study aimed to explore clinical influence of prostatic stones on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), seminal plasma cytokines, and serum biomarkers.

Materials and methods: A total of 70 men aged ≤50 years with LUTS divided into 2 groups: group with stones (GSt) and group without prostatic stones (GNoSt). All subjects completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire and National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) scoring questionnaire. Pre- and post-prostate massage test and uroflowmetry were performed. The serum concentration of total prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and free/total PSA (f/t PSA) ratio, seminal concentration of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured.

Results: GSt subjects had significantly more severe symptoms based on IPSS answers (p = 0.0289). All domains in NIH-CPSI scores were significantly higher in the GSt group: pain (p = 0.001), urinary symptoms (p = 0.023), quality of life (p = 0.008), and with overall (p = 0.003). GSt subjects also had significantly lower maximum urinary flow (Qmax; p = 0.011), lower f/t PSA ratio (p = 0.048), and higher concentration of IL-1β (p = 0.011) and IL-8 (p = 0.001).

Conclusions: Prostatic stones may influence the severity of LUTS and the symptoms of chronic prostatitis. They might reduce Qmax rate and lead to reduction of the f/t PSA ratio and produce more severe inflammation causing increased seminal concentration of IL-1β and IL-8.

Keywords: Cytokines; Inflammation; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Prostate; Prostate stones.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Calculi / therapy*
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostate / pathology*
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatitis / complications
  • Quality of Life
  • ROC Curve
  • Rheology
  • Semen / metabolism
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Biomarkers
  • CXCL8 protein, human
  • Cytokines
  • IL1B protein, human
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-8
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen