The identification of discrete neutrophil populations, as well as the characterization of their immunoregulatory properties, is an emerging topic under extensive investigation. In such regard, the presence of circulating CD66b+ neutrophil populations, exerting either immunosuppressive or proinflammatory functions, has been described in several acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, due to the lack of specific markers, the precise phenotype and maturation status of these neutrophil populations remain unclear. Herein, we report that CD10, also known as common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen, neutral endopeptidase, or enkephalinase, can be used as a marker that, within heterogeneous populations of circulating CD66b+ neutrophils present in inflammatory conditions, clearly distinguishes the mature from the immature ones. Accordingly, we observed that the previously described immunosuppressive neutrophil population that appears in the circulation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated donors (GDs) consists of mature CD66b+CD10+ neutrophils displaying an activated phenotype. These neutrophils inhibit proliferation and interferon γ (IFNγ) production by T cells via a CD18-mediated contact-dependent arginase 1 release. By contrast, we found that immature CD66b+CD10- neutrophils, also present in GDs, display an immature morphology, promote T-cell survival, and enhance proliferation and IFNγ production by T cells. Altogether, our findings uncover that in GDs, circulating mature and immature neutrophils, distinguished by their differential CD10 expression, exert opposite immunoregulatory properties. Therefore, CD10 might be used as a phenotypic marker discriminating mature neutrophils from immature neutrophil populations present in patients with acute or chronic inflammatory conditions, as well as facilitating their isolation, to better define their specific immunoregulatory properties.
© 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.