Recent advances on smart TiO2 nanotube platforms for sustainable drug delivery applications

Int J Nanomedicine. 2016 Dec 20;12:151-165. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S117498. eCollection 2017.


To address the limitations of traditional drug delivery, TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) are recognized as a promising material for localized drug delivery systems. With regard to the excellent biocompatibility and physicochemical properties, TNTs prepared by a facile electrochemical anodizing process have been used to fabricate new drug-releasing implants for localized drug delivery. This review discusses the development of TNTs applied in localized drug delivery systems, focusing on several approaches to control drug release, including the regulation of the dimensions of TNTs, modification of internal chemical characteristics, adjusting pore openings by biopolymer coatings, and employing polymeric micelles as drug nanocarriers. Furthermore, rational strategies on external conditions-triggered stimuli-responsive drug release for localized drug delivery systems are highlighted. Finally, the review concludes with the recent advances on TNTs for controlled drug delivery and corresponding prospects in the future.

Keywords: TiO2 nanotubes; drug-releasing implant; electrochemical anodization; modification; stimulated drug delivery.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Drug Implants*
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrodes
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Magnetics
  • Micelles*
  • Nanotubes / chemistry*
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Polymers / chemistry
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • Ultrasonics


  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Drug Implants
  • Micelles
  • Polymers
  • titanium dioxide
  • Titanium