The Effect of Photobiomodulation on the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata) Using Higher-Fluence on Fertilization, Embryogenesis, and Larval Development: An In Vitro Study

Photomed Laser Surg. 2017 Mar;35(3):127-135. doi: 10.1089/pho.2016.4136. Epub 2016 Dec 30.


Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the photobiomodulation (PBM) effect of the 808 nm diode laser irradiation on spermatozoa, eggs, fertilized eggs, embryos, and larvae of Paracentrotus lividus, using two different power settings.

Background data: Studies have shown the possible use of PBM in artificial insemination. These have shown the potential effect of low-power laser irradiation on spermatozoa, while there are few studies on the effect of laser photonic energy on oocytes and almost no reports on the influence of lasers in embryogenesis.

Methods: P. lividus gametes, zygotes, embryos, and larvae were irradiated using the 808 nm diode laser (fluence 64 J/cm2 using 1 W or 192 J/cm2 with 3 W) with a flat-top hand-piece delivery, compared to a control without laser irradiation (0 J/cm2-0 W). The fertilization rate and the early developmental stages were investigated.

Results: The fertilization ability was not affected by the sperm/egg irradiation. At the gastrula stage, no significant differences were observed compared with the control samples. In the late pluteus stage, there were no differences in the developmental percentage observed between the control and the treated samples (1 W), with the exception of larvae from gastrulae and larvae, which were irradiated at 3 W.

Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that both the 64 J/cm2-1 W and the 192 J/cm2-3 W do not induce morphological damage on the irradiated P. lividus gametes whose zygotes generate normal embryos and larvae. Our data therefore support the assumption to use higher fluence in preliminary studies on in vitro fertilization.

Keywords: embryogenesis; fertilization; gametes; low-level laser therapy; low-level light therapy; oocyte; photobiomodulation; spermatozoa.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Embryonic Development / radiation effects
  • Fertilization / radiation effects
  • Larva
  • Male
  • Sea Urchins / physiology
  • Sea Urchins / radiation effects*
  • Spermatozoa / radiation effects*
  • Tocopherols*


  • Tocopherols