Background: Proenkephalin A (PENK) and its receptors are widely distributed. Enkephalins are cardiodepressive and difficult to measure directly. PENK is a stable surrogate analyte of labile enkephalins that is correlated inversely with renal function. Cardiorenal syndrome is common in acute heart failure (HF) and portends poor prognosis.
Objectives: This study assessed the prognostic value of PENK in acute HF, by identifying levels that may be useful in clinical decisions, and evaluated its utility for predicting cardiorenal syndrome.
Methods: This multicenter study measured PENK in 1,908 patients with acute HF (1,186 male; mean age 75.66 ± 11.74 years). The primary endpoint was 1-year all-cause mortality; secondary endpoints were in-hospital mortality, all-cause mortality or HF rehospitalization within 1 year, and in-hospital worsening renal function, defined as a rise in plasma creatinine ≥26.5 μmol/l or 50% higher than the admission value within 5 days of presentation.
Results: During 1-year follow-up, 518 patients died. Measures of renal function were the major determinants of PENK levels. PENK independently predicted worsening renal function (odds ratio: 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 to 2.00; p < 0.0005) with a model receiver-operating characteristic area of 0.69. PENK was associated with the degree of worsening renal function. Multivariable Cox regression models showed that PENK level was an independent predictor of 1-year mortality (p < 0.0005) and 1-year death and/or HF (hazard ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.45; p = 0.001). PENK levels independently predicted outcomes at 3 or 6 months and were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, predominantly down-classifying risk in survivors when added to clinical scores; levels <133.3 pmol/l and >211.3 pmol/l detected low-risk and high-risk patients, respectively.
Conclusions: PENK levels reflect cardiorenal status in acute HF and are prognostic for worsening renal function and in-hospital mortality as well as mortality during follow-up.
Keywords: B-type natriuretic peptide; acute kidney injury; mortality; net reclassification improvement; opioids.
Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.