Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) is a clinical and biological heterogeneous disease including systemic ALK positive and ALK negative entities. Whereas ALK positive ALCLs are molecularly characterized and readily diagnosed, specific immunophenotypic or genetic features to define ALK negative ALCL are missing, and their distinction from other T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (T-NHLs) can be controversial. In recent years, great advances have been made in dissecting the heterogeneity of ALK negative ALCLs and in providing new diagnostic and treatment options for these patients. A new revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification promoted ALK negative ALCL to a definite entity that includes cytogenetic subsets with prognostic implications. However, a further understanding of the genetic landscape of ALK negative ALCL is required to dictate more effective therapeutic strategies specifically tailored for each subgroup of patients.
Keywords: ALK negative; anaplasticl large cell lymphoma; molecular classification; therapy.