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, 55 (1), 804-821

Low Levels of Prohibitin in Substantia Nigra Makes Dopaminergic Neurons Vulnerable in Parkinson's Disease

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Low Levels of Prohibitin in Substantia Nigra Makes Dopaminergic Neurons Vulnerable in Parkinson's Disease

Debashis Dutta et al. Mol Neurobiol.

Abstract

Since substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons are, respectively, susceptible or largely unaffected in Parkinson's disease (PD), we searched for protein(s) that regulates this differential sensitivity. Differentially, expressed proteins in SN and VTA were investigated employing two-directional gel electrophoresis- matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) analyses. Prohibitin, which is involved in mitochondrial integrity, was validated using immunoblot, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry in normal mice as well as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-model, PD postmortem human brains, and PD cybrids. In prohibitin over-expression, differentiated SH-SY5Y neurons were investigated for their susceptibility to PD neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridnium (MPP+). Prohibitin, Hsc73, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) were highly expressed in VTA, whereas heat shock protein A8 (HSPA8) and 14-3-3ζ/δ were 2-fold more in SN. Prohibitin level was transiently increased in SN but unaltered in VTA on the third day of MPTP-induced mice, whereas in PD human brains, prohibitin was depleted in both these regions. Parallel to mouse SN, an enhanced prohibitin expression was found in human PD cybrids. In MPP+-induced cellular model of PD, reduction in prohibitin level was found to be associated with a loss in its binding with Ndufs3, a mitochondrial complex I protein partner. Prohibitin over-expression resisted MPP+-induced neuronal death by restoring mitochondrial membrane potential, preventing reactive oxygen species generation and cytochrome c release into cytosol. These protective phenomena exerted by prohibitin over-expression altogether hinder caspase 3 activation induced by MPP+. These results imply that prohibitin is an important negotiator protein that regulates dopaminergic cell death in SN and their protection in VTA in PD.

Keywords: Cybrids; Cytochrome c; Human postmortem brain; Mitochondrial membrane potential; Ndufs3; Prohibitin.

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