Introduction: Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is an important condition affecting 29% of the hypertensive population in the U.S., especially among blacks. Sleep disturbances, like obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, and short sleep duration, are increasingly recognized as underlying modifiable factors for RHTN. We evaluated associations of RHTN with short sleep duration among blacks with metabolic syndrome.
Methods: Data from the Metabolic Syndrome Outcome Study (MetSO), a NIH-funded cohort study characterizing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among blacks were analyzed. MetS was defined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III). RHTN was defined according to guidelines from the American Heart Association. Short sleep was defined as self-reported sleep duration <7 hrs experienced during a 24-hour period.
Results: Analysis was based on 1,035 patients (mean age: 62±14years; female: 69.2%). Of the sample, 90.4% were overweight /obese; 61.4% had diabetes; 74.8% had dyslipidemia; 30.2% had a history of heart disease; and 48% were at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Overall, 92.6% reported physician-diagnosed hypertension (HTN) and 20.8% met criteria for RHTN. Analyses showed those with RHTN were more likely to be short sleepers (26.8% vs. 14.9%, p< 0.001). Based on logistic regression analysis, adjusting for effects of age, sex, and medical comorbidities, patients with metabolic syndrome and RHTN had increased odds of being short sleepers (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.28-2.97, p = 0.002).
Conclusion: Among blacks with metabolic syndrome, patients meeting criteria for resistant hypertension showed a twofold greater likelihood of being short sleepers, prompting the need for sleep screening in this vulnerable population.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; Resistant hypertension; Sleep duration.