Artepillin C and phenolic compounds responsible for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC

J Appl Microbiol. 2017 Apr;122(4):911-920. doi: 10.1111/jam.13400.


Aims: This study investigates the antimicrobial activity in Staphylococcus aureus isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) and antioxidant activity of green propolis, Baccharis dracunculifolia DC extracts and Artepillin C™.

Methods and results: The amount of Artepillin C in different extracts was determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration 90 (MIC90) was determined using 40 isolates of S. aureus inoculated in Müeller-Hinton agar culture medium containing the green propolis and B. dracunculifolia DC extracts. PVEE (green propolis ethanolic extract) and BDEH (B. dracunculifolia hexanic extract) showed the greatest antimicrobial activity with MIC90 values of 246·3 and 295·5 μg ml-1 respectively. Green propolis ethanolic and hexanic extracts (PVEE and PVEH respectively) showed the greatest antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) with IC50 values of 13·09 and 95·86 μg ml-1 respectively.

Conclusions: Green propolis ethanolic displays better antimicrobial and antioxidant activities compared to other extracts. These activities may be related to the presence of Artepillin C in synergism with the other constituents of the extracts.

Significance and impact of the study: In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of green propolis and B. dracunculifolia DC demonstrated in MRSA and MSSA clinical isolates indicated that they can be important tools to treat infections caused by these bacteria.

Keywords: Baccharis dracunculifolia; MRSA; MSSA; Staphylococcus aureus; Artepillin C; green propolis.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / analysis
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Baccharis / chemistry*
  • Phenols / pharmacology*
  • Phenylpropionates / analysis
  • Phenylpropionates / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Propolis / chemistry
  • Propolis / pharmacology*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Phenols
  • Phenylpropionates
  • Plant Extracts
  • artepillin C
  • Propolis