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Review
, 45 (10), 2418-2427

Suspensory Versus Aperture Fixation of a Quadrupled Hamstring Tendon Autograft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Meta-analysis

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Review

Suspensory Versus Aperture Fixation of a Quadrupled Hamstring Tendon Autograft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Meta-analysis

William M Browning 3rd et al. Am J Sports Med.

Abstract

Background: Hamstring grafts have become a popular choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, the most effective means of fixation of these soft tissue grafts is unknown.

Purpose: To determine whether suspensory or aperture fixation of hamstring tendon autografts provides better stability and clinical outcomes in ACL reconstruction.

Study design: Meta-analysis.

Methods: A literature search of studies reporting single-bundle ACL reconstructions using 4-stranded hamstring tendon autografts with aperture or suspensory fixation with a minimum 24-month follow-up was conducted. Stability and clinical outcomes were compared for aperture versus suspensory fixation. Knee stability was measured with the Lachman or pivot-shift test or KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference (SSD), and outcomes were determined with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Tegner, and Lysholm scores as well as graft failures. A random-effects model with a pooled estimate for the between-study variance was used to estimate proportions or means for each outcome and its corresponding 95% CI.

Results: Forty-one studies were included, of which 20 utilized suspensory fixation techniques and 21 utilized aperture fixation techniques. A >3-mm SSD was seen more often in the aperture group than the suspensory group, which was statistically significant ( P < .0001), but there was no significant difference between groups for a >5-mm SSD ( P = .53). The aperture group demonstrated significantly more graft ruptures than did the suspensory group ( P = .03). There were no statistically significant differences in Lachman grade 0 ( P = .76), grade 1 ( P = .89), and grade 2 ( P = .55) or pivot-shift grade 0 ( P = .72), grade 1 ( P = .97), and grade 2 ( P = .28). There was no statistically significant difference in mean continuous IKDC ( P = .80), Tegner ( P = .34), or Lysholm ( P = .84) scores.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated improved overall arthrometric stability and fewer graft ruptures using suspensory fixation compared with aperture fixation of a quadrupled hamstring tendon autograft in ACL reconstruction. There were no differences in IKDC, Lysholm, Lachman, and pivot-shift outcomes between suspensory and aperture fixation.

Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; aperture; autograft; fixation; hamstring; suspensory.

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