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. 2016 Dec 16;7(1):145-188.
doi: 10.1002/ece3.2579. eCollection 2017 Jan.

The Database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) Project

Lawrence N Hudson  1 Tim Newbold  2 Sara Contu  1 Samantha L L Hill  3 Igor Lysenko  4 Adriana De Palma  5 Helen R P Phillips  5 Tamera I Alhusseini  6 Felicity E Bedford  7 Dominic J Bennett  4 Hollie Booth  8 Victoria J Burton  9 Charlotte W T Chng  4 Argyrios Choimes  5 David L P Correia  10 Julie Day  4 Susy Echeverría-Londoño  5 Susan R Emerson  1 Di Gao  1 Morgan Garon  4 Michelle L K Harrison  4 Daniel J Ingram  11 Martin Jung  11 Victoria Kemp  12 Lucinda Kirkpatrick  13 Callum D Martin  14 Yuan Pan  15 Gwilym D Pask-Hale  1 Edwin L Pynegar  16 Alexandra N Robinson  6 Katia Sanchez-Ortiz  17 Rebecca A Senior  15 Benno I Simmons  4 Hannah J White  18 Hanbin Zhang  17 Job Aben  19 Stefan Abrahamczyk  20 Gilbert B Adum  21 Virginia Aguilar-Barquero  22 Marcelo A Aizen  23 Belén Albertos  24 E L Alcala  25 Maria Del Mar Alguacil  26 Audrey Alignier  27 Marc Ancrenaz  28 Alan N Andersen  29 Enrique Arbeláez-Cortés  30 Inge Armbrecht  31 Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez  32 Tom Aumann  33 Jan C Axmacher  34 Badrul Azhar  35 Adrián B Azpiroz  36 Lander Baeten  37 Adama Bakayoko  38 András Báldi  39 John E Banks  40 Sharad K Baral  41 Jos Barlow  42 Barbara I P Barratt  43 Lurdes Barrico  44 Paola Bartolommei  45 Diane M Barton  43 Yves Basset  46 Péter Batáry  47 Adam J Bates  48 Bruno Baur  49 Erin M Bayne  50 Pedro Beja  51 Suzan Benedick  52 Åke Berg  53 Henry Bernard  54 Nicholas J Berry  55 Dinesh Bhatt  56 Jake E Bicknell  57 Jochen H Bihn  58 Robin J Blake  59 Kadiri S Bobo  60 Roberto Bóçon  61 Teun Boekhout  62 Katrin Böhning-Gaese  63 Kevin J Bonham  64 Paulo A V Borges  65 Sérgio H Borges  66 Céline Boutin  67 Jérémy Bouyer  68 Cibele Bragagnolo  69 Jodi S Brandt  70 Francis Q Brearley  71 Isabel Brito  72 Vicenç Bros  73 Jörg Brunet  74 Grzegorz Buczkowski  75 Christopher M Buddle  76 Rob Bugter  77 Erika Buscardo  78 Jörn Buse  79 Jimmy Cabra-García  80 Nilton C Cáceres  81 Nicolette L Cagle  82 María Calviño-Cancela  83 Sydney A Cameron  84 Eliana M Cancello  85 Rut Caparrós  86 Pedro Cardoso  87 Dan Carpenter  88 Tiago F Carrijo  85 Anelena L Carvalho  66 Camila R Cassano  89 Helena Castro  44 Alejandro A Castro-Luna  90 Cerda B Rolando  91 Alexis Cerezo  92 Kim Alan Chapman  93 Matthieu Chauvat  94 Morten Christensen  95 Francis M Clarke  96 Daniel F R Cleary  97 Giorgio Colombo  98 Stuart P Connop  99 Michael D Craig  100 Leopoldo Cruz-López  101 Saul A Cunningham  102 Biagio D'Aniello  103 Neil D'Cruze  104 Pedro Giovâni da Silva  105 Martin Dallimer  106 Emmanuel Danquah  107 Ben Darvill  108 Jens Dauber  109 Adrian L V Davis  110 Jeff Dawson  111 Claudio de Sassi  112 Benoit de Thoisy  113 Olivier Deheuvels  114 Alain Dejean  115 Jean-Louis Devineau  116 Tim Diekötter  117 Jignasu V Dolia  118 Erwin Domínguez  119 Yamileth Dominguez-Haydar  120 Silvia Dorn  121 Isabel Draper  122 Niels Dreber  123 Bertrand Dumont  124 Simon G Dures  125 Mats Dynesius  126 Lars Edenius  127 Paul Eggleton  1 Felix Eigenbrod  128 Zoltán Elek  129 Martin H Entling  130 Karen J Esler  131 Ricardo F de Lima  132 Aisyah Faruk  133 Nina Farwig  134 Tom M Fayle  135 Antonio Felicioli  136 Annika M Felton  137 Roderick J Fensham  138 Ignacio C Fernandez  139 Catarina C Ferreira  140 Gentile F Ficetola  141 Cristina Fiera  142 Bruno K C Filgueiras  143 Hüseyin K Fırıncıoğlu  144 David Flaspohler  145 Andreas Floren  146 Steven J Fonte  147 Anne Fournier  148 Robert E Fowler  11 Markus Franzén  149 Lauchlan H Fraser  150 Gabriella M Fredriksson  151 Geraldo B Freire Jr  152 Tiago L M Frizzo  152 Daisuke Fukuda  153 Dario Furlani  98 René Gaigher  154 Jörg U Ganzhorn  155 Karla P García  156 Juan C Garcia-R  157 Jenni G Garden  158 Ricardo Garilleti  24 Bao-Ming Ge  159 Benoit Gendreau-Berthiaume  160 Philippa J Gerard  161 Carla Gheler-Costa  162 Benjamin Gilbert  163 Paolo Giordani  164 Simonetta Giordano  103 Carly Golodets  165 Laurens G L Gomes  166 Rachelle K Gould  167 Dave Goulson  11 Aaron D Gove  168 Laurent Granjon  169 Ingo Grass  170 Claudia L Gray  171 James Grogan  172 Weibin Gu  173 Moisès Guardiola  174 Nihara R Gunawardene  175 Alvaro G Gutierrez  176 Doris L Gutiérrez-Lamus  177 Daniela H Haarmeyer  178 Mick E Hanley  179 Thor Hanson  180 Nor R Hashim  181 Shombe N Hassan  182 Richard G Hatfield  183 Joseph E Hawes  184 Matt W Hayward  185 Christian Hébert  186 Alvin J Helden  184 John-André Henden  187 Philipp Henschel  188 Lionel Hernández  189 James P Herrera  190 Farina Herrmann  47 Felix Herzog  191 Diego Higuera-Diaz  192 Branko Hilje  193 Hubert Höfer  194 Anke Hoffmann  195 Finbarr G Horgan  196 Elisabeth Hornung  197 Roland Horváth  198 Kristoffer Hylander  199 Paola Isaacs-Cubides  200 Hiroaki Ishida  201 Masahiro Ishitani  202 Carmen T Jacobs  110 Víctor J Jaramillo  203 Birgit Jauker  204 F Jiménez Hernández  205 McKenzie F Johnson  82 Virat Jolli  206 Mats Jonsell  207 S Nur Juliani  208 Thomas S Jung  209 Vena Kapoor  210 Heike Kappes  211 Vassiliki Kati  212 Eric Katovai  213 Klaus Kellner  214 Michael Kessler  215 Kathryn R Kirby  216 Andrew M Kittle  217 Mairi E Knight  218 Eva Knop  219 Florian Kohler  220 Matti Koivula  221 Annette Kolb  222 Mouhamadou Kone  223 Ádám Kőrösi  224 Jochen Krauss  146 Ajith Kumar  225 Raman Kumar  226 David J Kurz  227 Alex S Kutt  228 Thibault Lachat  229 Victoria Lantschner  230 Francisco Lara  122 Jesse R Lasky  231 Steven C Latta  232 William F Laurance  233 Patrick Lavelle  234 Violette Le Féon  235 Gretchen LeBuhn  236 Jean-Philippe Légaré  237 Valérie Lehouck  238 María V Lencinas  239 Pia E Lentini  240 Susan G Letcher  241 Qi Li  242 Simon A Litchwark  243 Nick A Littlewood  244 Yunhui Liu  245 Nancy Lo-Man-Hung  246 Carlos A López-Quintero  247 Mounir Louhaichi  248 Gabor L Lövei  249 Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja  250 Victor H Luja  251 Matthew S Luskin  227 M Cristina MacSwiney G  252 Kaoru Maeto  253 Tibor Magura  198 Neil Aldrin Mallari  254 Louise A Malone  255 Patrick K Malonza  256 Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte  257 Salvador Mandujano  258 Inger E Måren  259 Erika Marin-Spiotta  260 Charles J Marsh  261 E J P Marshall  262 Eliana Martínez  263 Guillermo Martínez Pastur  239 David Moreno Mateos  264 Margaret M Mayfield  265 Vicente Mazimpaka  122 Jennifer L McCarthy  266 Kyle P McCarthy  267 Quinn S McFrederick  268 Sean McNamara  269 Nagore G Medina  270 Rafael Medina  271 Jose L Mena  272 Estefania Mico  273 Grzegorz Mikusinski  274 Jeffrey C Milder  275 James R Miller  276 Daniel R Miranda-Esquivel  277 Melinda L Moir  278 Carolina L Morales  279 Mary N Muchane  280 Muchai Muchane  281 Sonja Mudri-Stojnic  282 A Nur Munira  283 Antonio Muoñz-Alonso  284 B F Munyekenye  285 Robin Naidoo  286 A Naithani  287 Michiko Nakagawa  288 Akihiro Nakamura  289 Yoshihiro Nakashima  290 Shoji Naoe  291 Guiomar Nates-Parra  292 Dario A Navarrete Gutierrez  293 Luis Navarro-Iriarte  294 Paul K Ndang'ang'a  295 Eike L Neuschulz  296 Jacqueline T Ngai  297 Violaine Nicolas  298 Sven G Nilsson  299 Norbertas Noreika  300 Olivia Norfolk  301 Jorge Ari Noriega  302 David A Norton  303 Nicole M Nöske  304 A Justin Nowakowski  305 Catherine Numa  306 Niall O'Dea  307 Patrick J O'Farrell  308 William Oduro  309 Sabine Oertli  310 Caleb Ofori-Boateng  311 Christopher Omamoke Oke  312 Vicencio Oostra  313 Lynne M Osgathorpe  314 Samuel Eduardo Otavo  315 Navendu V Page  316 Juan Paritsis  317 Alejandro Parra-H  318 Luke Parry  319 Guy Pe'er  320 Peter B Pearman  321 Nicolás Pelegrin  322 Raphaël Pélissier  323 Carlos A Peres  324 Pablo L Peri  325 Anna S Persson  299 Theodora Petanidou  326 Marcell K Peters  146 Rohan S Pethiyagoda  327 Ben Phalan  328 T Keith Philips  329 Finn C Pillsbury  330 Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich  331 Eduardo Pineda  332 Joan Pino  333 Jaime Pizarro-Araya  334 A J Plumptre  335 Santiago L Poggio  336 Natalia Politi  337 Pere Pons  338 Katja Poveda  339 Eileen F Power  340 Steven J Presley  341 Vânia Proença  342 Marino Quaranta  343 Carolina Quintero  317 Romina Rader  344 B R Ramesh  345 Martha P Ramirez-Pinilla  346 Jai Ranganathan  347 Claus Rasmussen  348 Nicola A Redpath-Downing  349 J Leighton Reid  350 Yana T Reis  351 José M Rey Benayas  352 Juan Carlos Rey-Velasco  353 Chevonne Reynolds  354 Danilo Bandini Ribeiro  355 Miriam H Richards  356 Barbara A Richardson  357 Michael J Richardson  357 Rodrigo Macip Ríos  358 Richard Robinson  359 Carolina A Robles  360 Jörg Römbke  361 Luz Piedad Romero-Duque  362 Matthias Rös  363 Loreta Rosselli  364 Stephen J Rossiter  12 Dana S Roth  365 T'ai H Roulston  366 Laurent Rousseau  367 André V Rubio  368 Jean-Claude Ruel  10 Jonathan P Sadler  369 Szabolcs Sáfián  370 Romeo A Saldaña-Vázquez  371 Katerina Sam  372 Ulrika Samnegård  373 Joana Santana  51 Xavier Santos  51 Jade Savage  374 Nancy A Schellhorn  375 Menno Schilthuizen  376 Ute Schmiedel  377 Christine B Schmitt  378 Nicole L Schon  379 Christof Schüepp  219 Katharina Schumann  380 Oliver Schweiger  149 Dawn M Scott  381 Kenneth A Scott  382 Jodi L Sedlock  383 Steven S Seefeldt  384 Ghazala Shahabuddin  385 Graeme Shannon  386 Douglas Sheil  387 Frederick H Sheldon  388 Eyal Shochat  389 Stefan J Siebert  214 Fernando A B Silva  390 Javier A Simonetti  368 Eleanor M Slade  391 Jo Smith  392 Allan H Smith-Pardo  393 Navjot S Sodhi  394 Eduardo J Somarriba  91 Ramón A Sosa  395 Grimaldo Soto Quiroga  396 Martin-Hugues St-Laurent  397 Brian M Starzomski  398 Constanti Stefanescu  399 Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter  146 Philip C Stouffer  400 Jane C Stout  340 Ayron M Strauch  401 Matthew J Struebig  402 Zhimin Su  403 Marcela Suarez-Rubio  404 Shinji Sugiura  253 Keith S Summerville  405 Yik-Hei Sung  406 Hari Sutrisno  407 Jens-Christian Svenning  408 Tiit Teder  409 Caragh G Threlfall  410 Anu Tiitsaar  409 Jacqui H Todd  255 Rebecca K Tonietto  411 Ignasi Torre  412 Béla Tóthmérész  413 Teja Tscharntke  47 Edgar C Turner  414 Jason M Tylianakis  415 Marcio Uehara-Prado  416 Nicolas Urbina-Cardona  417 Denis Vallan  418 Adam J Vanbergen  419 Heraldo L Vasconcelos  420 Kiril Vassilev  421 Hans A F Verboven  422 Maria João Verdasca  423 José R Verdú  273 Carlos H Vergara  424 Pablo M Vergara  425 Jort Verhulst  426 Massimiliano Virgilio  427 Lien Van Vu  428 Edward M Waite  429 Tony R Walker  430 Hua-Feng Wang  431 Yanping Wang  432 James I Watling  433 Britta Weller  155 Konstans Wells  434 Catrin Westphal  47 Edward D Wiafe  435 Christopher D Williams  436 Michael R Willig  437 John C Z Woinarski  382 Jan H D Wolf  438 Volkmar Wolters  204 Ben A Woodcock  439 Jihua Wu  440 Joseph M Wunderle Jr  441 Yuichi Yamaura  291 Satoko Yoshikura  442 Douglas W Yu  443 Andrey S Zaitsev  444 Juliane Zeidler  445 Fasheng Zou  446 Ben Collen  447 Rob M Ewers  4 Georgina M Mace  447 Drew W Purves  448 Jörn P W Scharlemann  449 Andy Purvis  5
Affiliations
Free PMC article

The Database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) Project

Lawrence N Hudson et al. Ecol Evol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

Keywords: data sharing; global biodiversity modeling; global change; habitat destruction; land use.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Sampling locations. Map colors indicate biomes, taken from the Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World dataset (The Nature Conservancy, 2009), shown in a geographic (WGS84) projection. Circle radii are proportional to log10 of the number of samples at that Site. All circles have the same degree of partial transparency. Sites added to the database since Hudson et al. (2014) are shown in pink
Figure 2
Figure 2
Coverage of biomes. The percentage of Studies (a and b), Sites (c and d), and samples (e and f) against percentages of terrestrial NPP (Net Primary Productivity, computed as in Hudson et al., 2014; a, c, and e) and terrestrial area (b, d, and f). Biome codes and colors are as in Figure 1
Figure 3
Figure 3
Numbers of Sites against the areas of biodiversity hotspots and of high biodiversity wilderness areas (HBWAs). Hotspots are shown by circles and HBWAs by squares; symbols are colored by the predominant biogeographic realm in which they fall. Hotspots are 1 California Floristic Province, 2 Madrean Pine‐Oak Woodlands, 3 Atlantic Forest, 4 Caribbean Islands, 5 Cerrado, 6 Chilean Winter Rainfall and Valdivian Forests, 7 Mesoamerica, 8 Tropical Andes, 9 Tumbes‐Choco‐Magdalena, 10 Irano‐Anatolian, 11 Japan, 12 Mediterranean Basin, 13 Mountains of Central Asia, 14 Mountains of Southwest China, 15 Cape Floristic Region, 16 Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa, 17 Eastern Afromontane, 18 Guinean Forests of West Africa, 19 Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands, 20 Maputaland‐Pondoland‐Albany, 21 Succulent Karoo, 22 Himalaya, 23 Indo‐Burma, 24 Philippines, 25 Sundaland, 26 Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, 27 East Melanesian Islands, 28 Forests of East Australia, 29 New Zealand, 30 Southwest Australia, 31 Wallacea, 32 Polynesia‐Micronesia and HBWAs are 33 Amazonia, 34 Congo Forests, 35 New Guinea, 36 North American Deserts. Unrepresented are the hotspots Caucasus, Horn of Africa, New Caledonia and the HBWA Miombo‐Mopane Woodlands and Savannas
Figure 4
Figure 4
Taxonomic coverage. The numbers of species in our database against the numbers of described species within each of 59 higher taxa, as estimated by Chapman (2009), on logarithmic axes. Vertebrates are shown in red, arthropods in pink, other animals in gray, plants in green, and fungi in blue. The dashed, solid, and dotted lines indicate 10, 1, and 0.1% representation, respectively. Groups with just a single species represented (Diplura and Zoraptera) are not shown
Figure 5
Figure 5
Number of Studies by lowest common taxonomic group. Bars show the number of Studies within each lowest common taxon (so, one Study examined the species Swietenia macrophylla, three Studies examined the species Bombus pascuorum, ten Studies examined multiple species within the genus Bombus, and so on). Colors are as in Figure 4. Numbers on the right are the primary references from which data were taken: 1 Basset et al. (2008), 2 Buscardo et al. (2008), 3 Christensen and Heilmann‐Clausen (2009), 4 Domínguez, Bahamonde, and Muñoz‐Escobar (2012), 5 López‐Quintero, Straatsma, Franco‐Molano, and Boekhout (2012), 6 Nöske et al. (2008), 7 Norton, Espie, Murray, and Murray (2006), 8 Peri, Lencinas, Martínez Pastur, Wardell‐Johnson, and Lasagno (2013), 9 Robinson and Williams (2011), 10 Barratt et al. (2005), 11 Bonham, Mesibov, and Bashford (2002), 12 Boutin, Martin, and Baril (2009), 13 Carpenter et al. (2012), 14 Gaigher and Samways (2010), 15 Ge et al. (2012), 16 Hayward (2009), 17 Leighton‐Goodall, Brown, Hammond, and Eggleton (2012), 18 Muchane et al. (2012), 19 Ngai et al. (2008), 20 Richardson, Richardson, and Soto‐Adames (2005), 21 Schon, Mackay, Minor, Yeates, and Hedley (2008), 22 Schon, Mackay, Yeates, and Minor (2010), 23 Schon, Mackay, and Minor (2011), 24 Smith (2006), 25 Smith, Potts, Woodcock, and Eggleton (2008), 26 Smith, Potts, and Eggleton (2008), 27 Todd et al. (2011), 28 Vasconcelos et al. (2009), 29 Walker, Wilson, Norbury, Monks, and Tanentzap (2014), 30 Baeten, Velghe, et al. (2010), 31 Bakayoko, Martin, Chatelain, Traore, and Gautier (2011), 32 Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) (2013a), 33 Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) (2013b), 34 Dumont et al. (2009), 35 Firincioglu, Seefeldt, Sahin, and Vural (2009), 36 Haarmeyer, Schmiedel, Dengler, and Bosing (2010), 37 Joubert, Esler, and Privett (2009), 38 Norfolk, Eichhorn, and Gilbert (2013), 39 Page, Qureshi, Rawat, and Kushalappa (2010), 40 Proença, Pereira, Guilherme, and Vicente (2010), 41 Sheil et al. (2002), 42 Wang, Lencinas, Ross Friedman, Wang, and Qiu (2011), 43 Alignier and Deconchat (2013), 44 Baeten, Hermy, Van Daele, and Verheyen (2010), 45 Barlow, Gardner, et al. (2007), 46 Barrico et al. (2012), 47 Baur et al. (2006), 48 Berry et al. (2010), 49 Boutin, Baril, and Martin (2008), 50 Bouyer et al. (2007), 51 Brearley (2011), 52 Brunet et al. (2011), 53 Calviño‐Cancela, Rubido‐Bará, and van Etten (2012), 54 Castro, Lehsten, Lavorel, and Freitas (2010), 55 de Lima, Dallimer, Atkinson, and Barlow (2013), 56 Devineau, Fournier, and Nignan (2009), 57 Fensham, Dwyer, Eyre, Fairfax, and Wang (2012), 58 Fernandez and Simonetti (2013), 59 Fredriksson, Danielsen, and Swenson (2007), 60 Gendreau‐Berthiaume, Kneeshaw, and Harvey (2012), 61 Golodets, Kigel, and Sternberg (2010), 62 Grass, Berens, Peter, and Farwig (2013), 63 Gutierrez et al. (2009), 64 Helden and Leather (2004), 65 Hernández, Delgado, Meier, and Duran (2012), 66 Hietz (2005), 67 Higuera and Wolf (2010), 68 Hylander and Nemomissa (2009), 69 Ishida, Hattori, and Takeda (2005), 70 Kati, Zografou, Tzirkalli, Chitos, and Willemse (2012), 71 Katovai, Burley, and Mayfield (2012), 72 Kessler et al. (2005), 73 Kessler et al. (2009), 74 Kolb and Diekmann (2004), 75 Krauss, Klein, Steffan‐Dewenter, and Tscharntke (2004), 76 Krauss et al. (2010), 77 Kumar and Shahabuddin (2005), 78 Letcher and Chazdon (2009), 79 Louhaichi, Salkini, and Petersen (2009), 80 Lucas‐Borja et al. (2011), 81 Måren (2011), 82 Måren, Bhattarai, and Chaudhary (2013), 83 Marin‐Spiotta, Ostertag, and Silver (2007), 84 Mayfield, Ackerly, and Daily (2006), 85 McNamara, Erskine, Lamb, Chantalangsy, and Boyle (2012), 86 Milder et al. (2010), 87 O'Connor (2005), 88 Paritsis and Aizen (2008), 89 Phalan, Onial, Balmford, and Green (2011), 90 Pincheira‐Ulbrich, Rau, and Smith‐Ramirez (2012), 91 Poggio, Chaneton, and Ghersa (2013), 92 Power and Stout (2011), 93 Power, Kelly, and Stout (2012), 94 Ramesh et al. (2010), 95 Romero‐Duque, Jaramillo, and Perez‐Jimenez (2007), 96 Schmitt, Senbeta, Denich, Preisinger, and Boehmer (2010), 97 Shannon et al. (2008), 98 Siebert (2011), 99 Vassilev, Pedashenko, Nikolov, Apostolova, and Dengler (2011), 100 Williams, Sheahan, and Gormally (2009), 101 Yamaura et al. (2012), 102 Alcala, Alcala, and Dolino (2004), 103 Bicknell and Peres (2010), 104 Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE) (2010); Deheuvels, Avelino, Somarriba, and Malézieux (2012), Deheuvels et al. (2014); Rousseau, Deheuvels, Rodriguez Arias, and Somarriba (2012), 105 Craig et al. (2009), 106 Craig et al. (2012), 107 Craig, Grigg, Hobbs, and Hardy (2014), 108 Craig, Stokes, StJ. Hardy, and Hobbs (2015), 109 de Thoisy et al. (2010), 110 Endo et al. (2010), 111 Garden, McAlpine, and Possingham (2010), 112 Kurz, Nowakowski, Tingley, Donnelly, and Wilcove (2014), 113 Kutt and Woinarski (2007), 114 Kutt, Vanderduys, and O'Reagain (2012), 115 Lehouck et al. (2009), 116 Macip‐Ríos and Muñoz‐Alonso (2008), 117 McCarthy, McCarthy, Fuller, and McCarthy (2010), 118 Parry, Barlow, and Peres (2009), 119 Peres and Nascimento (2006), 120 St‐Laurent, Ferron, Hins, and Gagnon (2007), 121 Sung, Karraker, and Hau (2012), 122 Urbina‐Cardona, Olivares‐Perez, and Reynoso (2006), 123 Woinarski and Ash (2002), 124 Woinarski et al. (2009), 125 Billeter et al. (2008); Le Féon et al. (2010), 126 Borges et al. (2006), 127 Cabra‐García, Bermúdez‐Rivas, Osorio, and Chacón (2012), 128 Hanley (2011), 129 Lachat et al. (2006), 130 Cardoso et al. (2009); Meijer, Whittaker, and Borges (2011), 131 Nakamura, Proctor, and Catterall (2003), 132 Norfolk, Abdel‐Dayem, and Gilbert (2012), 133 Poveda, Martinez, Kersch‐Becker, Bonilla, and Tscharntke (2012), 134 Rousseau, Fonte, Tellez, van der Hoek, and Lavelle (2013), 135 Turner and Foster (2009), 136 Uehara‐Prado et al. (2009), 137 Waite (2012); Waite, Closs, Van Heezik, Berry, and Dickinson (2012), 138 Woodcock et al. (2007), 139 Albertos, Lara, Garilleti, and Mazimpaka (2005), 140 Draper, Lara, Albertos, Garilleti, and Mazimpaka (2006), 141 Giordano et al. (2004), 142 Hylander and Weibull (2012), 143 Medina et al. (2010), 144 Hu and Cao (2008), 145 Wu, Fu, Chen, and Chen (2002), 146 Zhang, Li, and Liang (2010), 147 Giordani et al. (2010), 148 Giordani (2012), 149 Aben, Dorenbosch, Herzog, Smolders, and Van Der Velde (2008), 150 Arbeláez‐Cortés, Rodríguez‐Correa, and Restrepo‐Chica (2011), 151 Aumann (2001), 152 Azhar et al. (2013), 153 Azman et al. (2011), 154 Azpiroz and Blake (2009), 155 Báldi, Batáry, and Erdos (2005), 156 Barlow, Mestre, Gardner, and Peres (2007), 157 Bóçon (2010), 158 Borges (2007), 159 Brandt et al. (2013), 160 Cerezo, Conde, and Poggio (2011), 161 Chapman and Reich (2007), 162 Cockle, Leonard, and Bodrati (2005), 163 Dallimer, Parnell, Bicknell, and Melo (2012), 164 Dawson et al. (2011), 165 Dures and Cumming (2010), 166 Edenius, Mikusinski, and Bergh (2011), 167 Farwig, Sajita, and Boehning‐Gaese (2008), 168 Flaspohler et al. (2010), 169 Gomes, Oostra, Nijman, Cleef, and Kappelle (2008); Oostra, Gomes, and Nijman (2008), 170 Hassan et al. (2013), 171 Ims and Henden (2012), 172 Lantschner, Rusch, and Peyrou (2008), 173 Lasky and Keitt (2010), 174 Latta, Tinoco, Astudillo, and Graham (2011), 175 Mallari et al. (2011), 176 Doulton, Marsh, Newman, Bird, and Bell (2007), 177 Marsh, Lewis, Said, and Ewers (2010), 178 Miranda, Politi, and Rivera (2010), 179 Moreno‐Mateos et al. (2011), 180 Munyekenye, Mwangi, and Gichuki (2008), 181 Naidoo (2004), 182 Naithani and Bhatt (2012), 183 Naoe, Sakai, and Masaki (2012), 184 Ndang'ang'a, Njoroge, and Githiru (2013), 185 Neuschulz, Botzat, and Farwig (2011), 186 O'Dea and Whittaker (2007), 187 Owiunji and Plumptre (1998), 188 Pearman (2002), 189 Politi, Hunter Jr. and Rivera (2012), 190 Pons and Wendenburg (2005), 191 Ranganathan, Chan, and Daily (2007), 192 Ranganathan, Daniels, Chandran, Ehrlich, and Daily (2008), 193 Reid, Harris, and Zahawi (2012), 194 Rey‐Benayas, Galvan, and Carrascal (2010), 195 Reynolds and Symes (2013), 196 Rosselli (2011), 197 Sam, Koane, Jeppy, and Novotny (2014), 198 Santana, Porto, Gordinho, Reino, and Beja (2012), 199 Shahabuddin and Kumar (2006, 2007), 200 Sheldon, Styring, and Hosner (2010), 201 Sodhi et al. (2010), 202 Soh, Sodhi, and Lim (2006), 203 Sosa, Benz, Galea, and Poggio Herrero (2010), 204 Stouffer, Johnson, Bierregaard, Richard, and Lovejoy (2011), 205 Suarez‐Rubio and Thomlinson (2009), 206 Vergara and Simonetti (2004), 207 Verhulst, Báldi, and Kleijn (2004), 208 Waite, Closs, van Heezik, and Dickinson (2013), 209 Wang, Bao, Yu, Xu, and Ding (2010), 210 Wunderle, Henriques, and Willig (2006), 211 Li, Zou, Zhang, and Sheldon (2013), 212 Bates et al. (2011), 213 Blake, Westbury, Woodcock, Sutton, and Potts (2011), 214 Blanche, Ludwig, and Cunningham (2006), 215 Cleary et al. (2004), 216 Farwig et al. 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Figure 6
Figure 6
Spatiotemporal sampling coverage. Site sampling dates are shown by biome. Each Site is represented by a circle and line. Circle radii are proportional to log10 of the number of samples at that Site. Circle centers are at the midpoints of Site sampling dates; lines indicate the start and end dates of sampling. Y‐values have been jittered at the Study level. Circles and lines have the same degree of partial transparency. Biome colors and letters are as in Figure 1

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