Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016;2016:9838041.
doi: 10.1155/2016/9838041. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Hepatitis E Virus in Industrialized Countries: The Silent Threat

Free PMC article

Hepatitis E Virus in Industrialized Countries: The Silent Threat

Pilar Clemente-Casares et al. Biomed Res Int. .
Free PMC article


Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Its presence in developing countries has been documented for decades. Developed countries were supposed to be virus-free and initially only imported cases were detected in those areas. However, sporadic and autochthonous cases of HEV infection have been identified and studies reveal that the virus is worldwide spread. Chronic hepatitis and multiple extrahepatic manifestations have also been associated with HEV. We review the data from European countries, where human, animal, and environmental data have been collected since the 90s. In Europe, autochthonous HEV strains were first detected in the late 90s and early 2000s. Since then, serological data have shown that the virus infects quite frequently the European population and that some species, such as pigs, wild boars, and deer, are reservoirs. HEV strains can be isolated from environmental samples and reach the food chain, as shown by the detection of the virus in mussels and in contaminated pork products as sausages or meat. All these data highlight the need of studies directed to control the sources of HEV to protect immunocompromised individuals that seem the weakest link of the HEV epidemiology in industrialized regions.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 13 articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Petrik J., Lozano M., Seed C. R., et al. Hepatitis E. Vox Sanguinis. 2016;110(1):93–130. doi: 10.1111/vox.12285. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Pérez-Gracia M. T., García M., Suay B., Mateos-Lindemann M. L. Current knowledge on hepatitis E. Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology. 2015;3(2):117–126. doi: 10.14218/JCTH.2015.00009. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Khuroo M. S. Discovery of hepatitis E: the epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis 30 years down the memory lane. Virus Research. 2011;161(1):3–14. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2011.02.007. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Kamar N., Bendall R., Legrand-Abravanel F., et al. Hepatitis E. The Lancet. 2012;379(9835):2477–2488. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(11)61849-7. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Khuroo M. S., Khuroo M. S. Hepatitis E: an emerging global disease—from discovery towards control and cure. Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2016;23(2):68–79. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12445. - DOI - PubMed