PLA2G16 Represents a Switch Between Entry and Clearance of Picornaviridae

Nature. 2017 Jan 19;541(7637):412-416. doi: 10.1038/nature21032. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Abstract

Picornaviruses are a leading cause of human and veterinary infections that result in various diseases, including polio and the common cold. As archetypical non-enveloped viruses, their biology has been extensively studied. Although a range of different cell-surface receptors are bound by different picornaviruses, it is unclear whether common host factors are needed for them to reach the cytoplasm. Using genome-wide haploid genetic screens, here we identify the lipid-modifying enzyme PLA2G16 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11) as a picornavirus host factor that is required for a previously unknown event in the viral life cycle. We find that PLA2G16 functions early during infection, enabling virion-mediated genome delivery into the cytoplasm, but not in any virion-assigned step, such as cell binding, endosomal trafficking or pore formation. To resolve this paradox, we screened for suppressors of the ΔPLA2G16 phenotype and identified a mechanism previously implicated in the clearance of intracellular bacteria. The sensor of this mechanism, galectin-8 (encoded by LGALS8), detects permeated endosomes and marks them for autophagic degradation, whereas PLA2G16 facilitates viral genome translocation and prevents clearance. This study uncovers two competing processes triggered by virus entry: activation of a pore-activated clearance pathway and recruitment of a phospholipase to enable genome release.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autophagy
  • Biological Transport
  • Cell Line
  • Cytoplasm / genetics
  • Cytoplasm / virology*
  • Endosomes / metabolism
  • Female
  • Galectins / genetics
  • Galectins / metabolism
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Host-Derived Cellular Factors / deficiency
  • Host-Derived Cellular Factors / genetics
  • Host-Derived Cellular Factors / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Phospholipases A2, Calcium-Independent / deficiency
  • Phospholipases A2, Calcium-Independent / genetics
  • Phospholipases A2, Calcium-Independent / metabolism*
  • Picornaviridae / genetics*
  • Picornaviridae / physiology*
  • Suppression, Genetic
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / deficiency
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism*
  • Virion / genetics
  • Virion / metabolism
  • Virus Internalization*
  • Virus Replication

Substances

  • Galectins
  • Host-Derived Cellular Factors
  • LGALS8 protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • PLA2G16 protein, human
  • Phospholipases A2, Calcium-Independent