The First Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Boswellia sacra, a Resin-Producing Plant in Oman

PLoS One. 2017 Jan 13;12(1):e0169794. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169794. eCollection 2017.


Boswellia sacra (Burseraceae), a keystone endemic species, is famous for the production of fragrant oleo-gum resin. However, the genetic make-up especially the genomic information about chloroplast is still unknown. Here, we described for the first time the chloroplast (cp) genome of B. sacra. The complete cp sequence revealed a circular genome of 160,543 bp size with 37.61% GC content. The cp genome is a typical quadripartite chloroplast structure with inverted repeats (IRs 26,763 bp) separated by small single copy (SSC; 18,962 bp) and large single copy (LSC; 88,055 bp) regions. De novo assembly and annotation showed the presence of 114 unique genes with 83 protein-coding regions. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the B. sacra cp genome is closely related to the cp genome of Azadirachta indica and Citrus sinensis, while most of the syntenic differences were found in the non-coding regions. The pairwise distance among 76 shared genes of B. sacra and A. indica was highest for atpA, rpl2, rps12 and ycf1. The cp genome of B. sacra reveals a novel genome, which could be used for further studied to understand its diversity, taxonomy and phylogeny.

MeSH terms

  • Boswellia / classification
  • Boswellia / genetics*
  • Computational Biology / methods*
  • DNA, Chloroplast / genetics
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Genes, Plant / genetics*
  • Genome, Chloroplast / genetics*
  • Genome, Plant*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / methods*
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation
  • Phylogeny
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods


  • DNA, Chloroplast

Grant support

This work was supported by the Oman Research Council (EBR/15/007). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.